Table 2: Effect of dilution rate on fermentation characteristics of wild type E. coli.

Dilution rate (h−1)Biomass conc. (g/L)Specific glucose uptake rate (mmol/g/h)Specific acetate formation rate (mmol/g/h)Biomass yield (g/g)Specific CER (mmol/g/h)

0.2 ND* 9.15
0.4 0.01 11.61
0.6 13.17
0.7 15.83

*ND: not detectable, where glucose detectable limit is 0.038 g/L.