Table 1: Efficacy of alcoholic extracts of Rumex abyssinicus (RMA), Artemisia annua (AMR), and Catha edulis Forsk (CEF) on Trypanosoma cells. T. brucei cells were seeded in 96 well plates ( cells/well), and extracts of the different plants were added in increasing concentrations. The cells were inspected at the 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 24th hrs of incubation by microscopic observation according to the following operational definitions: live cells: cells moving either fast or slowly; dead cells: no moving cells are observed in the medium; actively moving: cells move actively swimming from place to place in the medium within the microscopic field; weakly moving: a live cell that moves slowly in a fixed position; clamping: cells sticking together in groups of a minimum of 5 cells per clamp.

Concentration (µg/mL)RMAAMRCEF

2 hr incubation
3XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
33XXXXXXXXXXXX
333XXXX

3 hr incubation
3XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
33XXXXXXXXXXX
333 XXX

6 hr incubation
3 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
33XXXXXXXXX
333XXX

24 hr incubation
3 XXXXXXXXXXXXX
33XXXXXXX
333 XXX

X: all cells are dead; XX: more than 95% of cells are dead, and the rest are slowly moving at a fixed position; XXX: all cells move weakly and start clamping; XXXX: 50% of cells are active, and 50% are weakly moving; XXXXX: live and actively moving cells.