ISRN Biomarkers http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Evaluation of CD25+CD4+ Regulatory T-Lymphocyte Subpopulations in Coronary Artery Diseases Patients Tue, 04 Mar 2014 09:51:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.biomarkers/2014/562587/ Background. The development of atherosclerosis may be associated with a deficiency in the regulatory T-cells, which should serve a protective function and inhibit the accumulation of lymphocytes and macrophages. The aim of this study was the analysis of the T-lymphocyte subpopulations, particularly CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cells in patients with different form of coronary artery disease. Materials and Methods. In the study 30 patients with stable coronary heart disease and 30 patients with unstable coronary heart disease take part. Lymphocytes subpopulations were measured with flow cytometry technique. The analysis of the treated cells parameters was performed with the use of CellQuest program. Results. We have observed statistically significant increase in activated lymphocytes subpopulations in patients with unstable coronary artery disease in comparison to stable group and significant decrease in CD25+, CD25/CD3+, and CD25/CD4+ subpopulations in unstable patients comparing to stable patients group. Conclusions. A strong interest in regulatory lymphocytes is due to their possible therapeutic use as a factor in modifying the immune response in various diseases. Questions regarding the role of regulatory T-cells in the development of atherosclerosis remain unclear. Mechanisms of the regulatory T-cells impact on suppression of atherosclerosis need more experiments to be done. Ewa Romuk, Bronisława Skrzep-Poloczek, Celina Wojciechowska, Wojciech Jacheć, Bogdan Mazur, and Ewa Birkner Copyright © 2014 Ewa Romuk et al. All rights reserved. Serum Ratio of Leptin to Adiponectin in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Sun, 12 Jan 2014 13:16:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.biomarkers/2014/952636/ Background. Serum ratio of leptin to adiponectin has been reported to be a useful index of insulin resistance. Since these two adipokines could also be involved in many immunoinflammatory reactions, this ratio might be associated with some inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis. The present study aims to explore the difference in serum ratio of leptin/adiponectin among patients with diabetes and periodontitis, patients with periodontitis only, and healthy people and find out the correlation between this ratio and periodontal parameters. Method. 15 patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes, 15 patients with chronic periodontitis only, and 15 healthy controls were selected. Clinical indexes and periodontal parameters were recorded and serum leptin and adiponectin levels were tested by ELISA kits. Result. The ratio of leptin/adiponectin is significantly different among three groups; the T2 DM + CP group has the highest ratio () and the healthy group has the lowest ratio (). What is more, the ratio of leptin/adiponectin has strong positive correlation with periodontal parameters (). Conclusions. Chronic periodontitis could influence the level of adipokines in serum and change the ratio of leptin/adiponectin, and the effect would be enhanced combining with type 2 diabetes. Xu Jing Ling, Meng Huan Xin, He Lu, Wang Xian’E, and Zhang Lin Copyright © 2014 Xu Jing Ling et al. All rights reserved. Microsatellite Instability in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Study of a Brazilian Population Sat, 14 Dec 2013 10:25:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.biomarkers/2013/474107/ Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the sixth most common solid tumor in the world. Apart from known risk factors for head and neck SCC (HNSCC), there is a lack of information about genetic susceptibility regions that may play pivotal roles in the tumorigenesis of these tumors. Therefore, we have aimed to analyze the presence of genetic instability in microsatellite markers distributed in the genome. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was found in 6 HNSCC patients, among which only one was detected by the D17S250 marker, whereas the other 5 occurrences (13.5%) were detected by the D3S1611 marker. No instability was found at markers D5S346, D10S197, D11S922, and D11S988. MSI detected by D3S1611 marker was present in 3 (14.3%) moderately differentiated tumors and in 2 (25.0%) poorly differentiated tumors, but no statistical significance was found. Genotypic frequencies for all markers showed no statistically significant distribution alteration, neither were they related to differentiation grade or patient age. Marker D3S1611 is located in the MLH1 gene, which is part of the mismatch repair system (MMR), helping to maintain genomic stability. We have found a higher rate of D3S1611 MSI in older patients, suggesting that this marker may be affected by aging processes in the DNA repair machinery. Elaine Stur, Eldamaria de Vargas Wolfgramm, Allan Kardec de Castro Neto, Lucas de Lima Maia, Lidiane Pignaton Agostini, Gabriela Tonini Peterle, Suzanny Oliveira Mendes, Marcelos dos Santos, Flávia de Paula, and Iúri Drumond Louro Copyright © 2013 Elaine Stur et al. All rights reserved. Correlation between Body Mass Index and Thyroid Function in Euthyroid Individuals in Greece Mon, 23 Sep 2013 11:43:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.biomarkers/2013/651494/ Although the effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on body weight have been clearly demonstrated, there is no sufficient data on the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and minor differences within the normal range of thyroid function. The present study aims to investigate the relationship of fluctuations of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones with BMI in euthyroid subjects. The study included 736 euthyroid healthy individuals of known age, weight, height, and biochemical picture of the thyroid function. Individuals were classified according to BMI and thyroid hormones’ values. The variations of normal thyroid function in euthyroid individuals were associated with body weight changes. A statistically significant positive correlation between BMI and thyroid function in women was found, while in men the correlation was not statistically significant. The alterations in thyroid function are mainly primary, while changes in body weight are secondary. The reason may be simple or multifactorial, and the biological mechanism is not completely known. Finally, the thyroid function disorders in conjunction with the strong influence of various environmental factors can increase body weight and lead to obesity. Anastasios Milionis and Charalampos Milionis Copyright © 2013 Anastasios Milionis and Charalampos Milionis. All rights reserved. Flow Cytometric Measurement of Aneuploid DNA Content Correlates with High S-Phase Fraction and Poor Prognosis in Patients with Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Wed, 07 Aug 2013 13:38:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.biomarkers/2013/354123/ Cellular DNA content (ploidy) and proliferation activity (e.g., S-phase fraction) measured by flow cytometry have been usually related to the biologic aggressiveness of various neoplasms. In this study, these parameters were analyzed in paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 43 cases of resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Additionally, the correlation of them with both prognosis and a variety of clinic-pathological features were investigated. The stage and the appearance of both local recurrence and metastasis were related to overall survival of patients. Twenty-two tumors (51.2%) had a diploid DNA distribution, while 21 were aneuploid (48.8%). The mean of aneuploidy was 1.6% ± 0.3%. A correlation was found between ploidy and survival as well as with the appearance of local recurrence and/or metastasis. The mean values of S-phase fraction of diploid and aneuploid tumors were 16.7 ± 11.3% and 32.9 ± 12.1%, respectively, which were significantly different (). Similar results were obtained analyzing the proliferation index (sum of cells in S and G2/M phases of cell cycle) (). However, no correlation between these parameters and both overall survival of patients and clinicopathological features was observed. Our results could suggest the potential use of ploidy analysis as a useful complement of TNM stage in NSCLC. Rancés Blanco, Charles E. Rengifo, Mercedes Cedeño, Milagros Frómeta, and Enrique Rengifo Copyright © 2013 Rancés Blanco et al. All rights reserved. Short-Term Stability of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status in Human Serum Tue, 18 Jun 2013 09:27:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.biomarkers/2013/316528/ The oxidation and antioxidant status of serum are often determined in serum samples which have been frozen for some time. The oxidative stress process is prone to fast alterations in the sample because of the possible instability of the reactants. Here one oxidation assay (ROM) and three antioxidant assays (FRAP, TAS, and BAP) have been tested on their performance and stability at short-time storage. The most commonly used temperatures for storage and handling of serum samples (+4 and +20°C) were selected. In three short-term studies in which the storage time varied between 3 and 48 hrs the performance of these assays were tested on human serum samples. The general conclusion is that most assays performed well and gave stable results during 2 days of storage of the samples at both temperatures. Only the FRAP and TAS assays showed a small deviation at some storage conditions. In conclusion, handling of serum samples at +4 and +20°C during short-time periods did not affect the quality and performance of the oxidation and antioxidant assays during day-to-day analyses. Eugène H. J. M. Jansen, Piet K. Beekhof, Johannes W. J. M. Cremers, Dale Viezeliene, Vladimira Muzakova, and Jiri Skalicky Copyright © 2013 Eugène H. J. M. Jansen et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostically Relevant Molecular Markers in Head and Neck Neoplasms Mon, 03 Jun 2013 18:18:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.biomarkers/2013/873953/ Tumor markers are grouped into diagnostic and prognostic markers. Specific diagnostic markers appear extensively in cells of a particular neoplasm and not in other tumors. These markers can be used to assess the cellular lineage and histogenic origin of various neoplasms. Thus, diagnostic markers can be used for the confirmatory diagnosis of various tumors. This paper reviews the literature on various diagnostic markers and aims to group them based on the cellular lineage of neoplasms. Soma Susan Varghese, Philips Mathew, and Jithin Jose Copyright © 2013 Soma Susan Varghese et al. All rights reserved. CD133 Staining Detects Acute Kidney Injury and Differentiates Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma from Other Renal Tumors Sun, 02 Jun 2013 16:30:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.biomarkers/2013/353598/ CD133 has recently been characterized as a progenitor cell marker in the kidney. However, the expression of this marker has not been thoroughly investigated in kidney injury and variants of renal tumors for pathology practice. We quantified CD133 expression in kidney biopsies from patients with acute renal failure and compared staining intensity with serum creatinine levels. CD133 expression levels were also evaluated in several subtypes of renal neoplasms. Normal adult renal parenchyma showed CD133 expression in parietal epithelium and in less than 5% of the epithelial cells in proximal and distal nephron tubules. However, CD133 was diffusely upregulated in the injured proximal and distal tubular epithelium and the CD133 expression scores in renal tubules were significantly correlated with serum creatinine levels. Amongst the renal tumors, CD133 was diffusely expressed in clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma but was only focally present in other types of renal tumors. In summary, CD133 is a useful marker to detect renal tubular injury and to differentiate clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma from other tumor types. John D. Schwartz, Francis Dumler, Jason M. Hafron, George D. Wilson, Stacy C. Wolforth, Michele T. Rooney, Wei Li, and Ping L. Zhang Copyright © 2013 John D. Schwartz et al. All rights reserved.