Table 4: Guide to suggested STM for ZrO2 ceramics.

Ceramics typeCommercial brandsSTMPrimers/silaneResin cement (RC)

Y-TZP ZrO2Lava, Cercon, Emax ZIR-CAD, Procera Zirconia
50–150 µm Al2O3 air-abrasion, with 2.5 bars, 10 mm distance, for 15 secondsPhosphate monomer containing RC (Rely-X U200, Panavia F, and Panavia 2.1)
Phosphate monomer containing solutions: Alloy Primer, Clearfil Ceramic Primer, or Kuraray’s Clearfil Repair KitDual or chemical cured RC (check compatibility with previous applied solutions)
Glass infiltrated ZrO2In-Ceram Zirconia25 µm Al2O3 air-abrasion with 2.8 bars, 10 mm distance, for 15 s.Phosphate monomer containing RC (Rely-X U200, Panavia F, and Panavia 2.1)
Air-abrasion with Si-coating Al2O3 particles (CoJet or Rocatec system), at 4.5 bars, 10 mm distance, for 10 s.Phosphate monomer containing solutions: Alloy Primer, Clearfil Ceramic Primer, or Kuraray’s Clearfil Repair KitDual or chemical cured RC (check compatibility with previous applied solutions)