Table 1: Baseline comparison of demographics and cardiovascular risk factors between “Never MetS”, “Always MetS”, “MetS new onset” and “MetS resolution” groups.

Risk factors at baselineMean and SD and counts and percentagesOverall P valueMultiple comparisons
Never MetS ( 𝑛 = 1 2 1 )Always MetS ( 𝑛 = 5 2 )MetS resolution ( 𝑛 = 2 8 )New onset MetS ( 𝑛 = 3 3 )

Age (years) 6 6 . 2 ± 1 0 . 3 6 4 . 5 ± 8 . 3 6 5 . 3 ± 7 . 4 6 2 . 9 ± 7 . 7 0.295
Sex (male)98 (81%)41 (79%)24 (86%)29 (88%)0.689
Family history of CVD40 (33%)16 (31%)7 (25%)15 (45%)0.360
Coronary artery bypass surgery45 (37%)20 (38%)8 (29%)10 (30%)0.723
Percutaneous transluminal coronary angiogram47 (39%)14 (27%)12 (43%)13 (39%)0.401
Diabetes8 (6%)20 (38%)9 (32%)7 (21%)<0.001<0.001
( 0 1 , 2 , 3 )
( 3 1 , 2 )
Previous myocardial infarction62 (51%)24 (46%)12 (43%)23 (69%)0.121
TC (mmol/L) 4 . 3 8 ± 0 . 8 9 4 . 6 6 ± 0 . 9 9 4 . 4 3 ± 0 . 7 3 4 . 4 8 ± 0 . 7 4 0.282
LDL-C (mmol/ L) 2 . 5 3 ± 0 . 7 3 2 . 5 9 ± 0 . 8 1 2 . 4 4 ± 0 . 5 8 2 . 6 8 ± 0 . 6 2 0.582
HDL-C (mmol/ L) 1 . 2 5 ± 0 . 3 1 0 . 9 9 ± 0 . 2 2 1 . 0 1 ± 0 . 2 0 1 . 1 7 ± 0 . 2 8 <0.001<0.001 ( 0 1 , 2 )
0.024 ( 1 3 )
Triglycerides (mmol/ L) 1 . 3 2 ± 0 . 6 6 2 . 3 7 ± 0 . 8 4 2 . 1 5 ± 1 . 1 1 1 . 3 8 ± 0 . 5 0 <0.001<0.001 ( 0 1 , 2 )
<0.001 ( 3 1 , 2 )
Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) 5 . 3 2 ± 1 . 5 8 6 . 3 4 ± 1 . 4 1 5 . 9 9 ± 1 . 1 8 5 . 8 6 ± 1 . 3 0 <0.001<0.001 ( 0 1 )
Systolic BP (mmHg) 1 2 6 ± 2 2 1 3 4 ± 1 7 1 3 0 ± 2 7 1 2 0 ± 1 4 0.0240.020 ( 1 3 )
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 7 1 ± 1 0 7 5 ± 1 0 7 2 ± 1 3 7 3 ± 1 0 0.154
Body mass index (kg/m²) 2 5 . 4 ± 2 . 9 3 0 . 4 ± 4 . 2 2 8 . 6 ± 3 . 9 2 7 . 6 ± 3 . 1 <0.001<0.001
( 0 1 , 2 , 3 )
<0.002 ( 1 3 )
Waist circumference (cm) 8 6 . 7 ± 9 . 0 1 0 2 . 4 ± 1 1 . 5 9 9 . 8 ± 1 1 . 0 9 5 . 6 ± 9 . 1 <0.001<0.001
( 0 1 , 2 , 3 )
0.013 ( 1 3 )
Exercise capacity (METS) 1 0 . 8 ± 4 . 4 9 . 1 ± 2 . 2 1 3 . 8 ± 2 . 9 1 0 . 7 ± 2 . 3 0.109
Leisure time physical activity (kcal/week) 3 0 2 9 ± 3 3 7 2 8 3 7 ± 1 7 0 8 3 0 9 0 ± 5 5 8 3 2 1 9 ± 2 2 6 0.894
Perceived stress 3 2 ± 8 3 1 ± 8 3 4 ± 9 3 2 ± 6 0.512
Illness intrusiveness 2 7 ± 1 1 3 3 ± 1 6 3 6 ± 1 9 2 8 ± 1 3 0.0200.040 ( 0 2 )
Health-specific self-efficacy 4 3 ± 4 4 2 ± 4 4 2 ± 6 4 1 ± 4 0.064
Exercise self-efficacy 6 7 ± 1 2 7 0 ± 1 0 6 3 ± 1 3 6 4 ± 1 2 0.080

CVD: cardiovascular disease, TC: total cholesterol, LDL-C: low density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
One-way ANOVA and Pearson’s chi square for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multiple comparisons were assessed with the Tukey correction. Multiple comparisons: 0: Never MetS, 1: Always MetS, 2: MetS resolution, 3: New onset MetS.
Note: 0 1 means that Never MetS is significantly different with Always MetS group.