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Figure 9: Signal pathways that modulate the PINK1-Parkin pathway. Inhibition of the mTORC1 pathway stimulates mitochondrial degeneration in Drosophila, while supplementation with vitamin K2 or ROS scavengers ameliorates defects in respiratory chain activity. Increased mitochondrial biogenesis by the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator- (PGC)-1α and autophagy machinery may improve mitochondrial activity.