Table 1: Classical and optimally tuned PID parameters for Process 1.

Method 𝐾 𝑝 𝐾 𝑖 𝐾 𝑑

HC0.5650.0460250.34352
SC0.5480.0492940.56115
Visioli0.6240.0540210.72446
PSO PID0.53380.03070.4931
PIDr10.53380.02110.4931
PIDr20.53380.03790.4931