ISRN Construction Engineering http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Causes of Variation Orders in Road Construction Projects in Sri Lanka Thu, 05 Dec 2013 10:29:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.construction.engineering/2013/381670/ One of the most important problems in the construction industry is variations. They occur in every construction project and the magnitude of these variations varies considerably from project to project. Hence, the variations orders bear great importance right from the inception to completion in the construction industry. Most of the road construction projects in Sri Lanka have experienced a large number of variation orders. The client had to spend more than what was initially estimated in most cases. Sometimes, disputes and unnecessary delays occur due to variations. This study attempted to reveal the possible causes of variation orders in the road construction projects in Sri Lanka. The data were collected through a literature review, a case study analysis focused on 11 road construction projects, and a questionnaire administered to professionals in the road construction industry in Sri Lanka. The study found out that the causes in the local context differ from those in the international context. According to the questionnaire survey, poor estimation was the most significant cause of variation orders. Unforeseen site conditions, political pressure during construction stage, poor investigation, and client-initiated variations occupy the 2nd to 5th places, respectively, in the ranking. This ranking was further proven through the case study analysis. R. U. Halwatura and N. P. N. P. Ranasinghe Copyright © 2013 R. U. Halwatura and N. P. N. P. Ranasinghe. All rights reserved. Health Monitoring of Nuclear Structure Containment Using Strain Gauges to Assess the Integrity Sat, 30 Nov 2013 13:40:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.construction.engineering/2013/149458/ Assessment of concrete structures and prediction of their health and life could be possible by online monitoring of the stress/strain level and is an intelligent tool to prevent accidents. Measuring strain pattern on structures is vital to evaluate the health of forced members. The present paper describes the methodology, instrumentation line up, and coding for LabVIEW software for continuous online strain data acquisition of structures for nuclear structures. The performance of strain gauges on concrete and steel containment structures of nuclear reactor and to assess the integrity and health of the containment structure is emphases in this research paper. A. K. Parande, J. Kennedy, M. S. Karthikeyan, R. Jeyaram, A. Sivashanmugam, R. H. Suresh Bapu, and N. Palaniswamy Copyright © 2013 A. K. Parande et al. All rights reserved. A Framework to Reconcile Green Goals with Budget Reality Sun, 12 May 2013 17:16:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.construction.engineering/2013/656742/ A public agency that decides to implement green design and construction features in its capital improvement program is actually adding an undetermined incremental cost to the initial cost of public buildings. Past research has portrayed these costs as a percentage increase, essentially creating an overall contingency for green buildings, but no work has been done to quantify the incremental cost on a building's actual design program that can be assigned directly to the project budget. This research sought to provide an objective approach to estimating sustainable design and proposes a framework for estimating the initial capital costs of sustainable building design and construction as measured by the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification program. The framework allows tracking of costs during design and can be utilized for estimating future projects. The framework is developed using case study analysis of green building projects in OK City, Oklahoma. The paper concludes that the cost of “going green” can be estimated as a unit price basis as a cost per LEED credit. The proposed framework can be used by any public agency to determine the additional cost of LEED certification and for budgeting future projects. Rachel Mosier and Douglas D. Gransberg Copyright © 2013 Rachel Mosier and Douglas D. Gransberg. All rights reserved.