Table 1: Electroless bath composition and operating condition.

Bath constituentsValuesOperating conditionValues

Nickel sulphate (g/L)20–30pH7-8
Sodium hypophosphite (g/L)14–20
Temperature90 ± 2°C
Sodium citrate (g/L)35
Ammonium sulphate (g/L)30Duration of coating3 hrs
Lactic acid (g/L)5
Bath volume (mL)200
Sodium tungstate (g/L)15–25