Table 1: The causes of ESRD and cutaneous manifestations in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

Dermatological manifestationsTotalHTNDMCGNCINOthers
𝑁 = 1 4 3 (100%) 𝑁 = 7 8 (52.4%) 𝑁 = 3 7 (25.9%) 𝑁 = 1 5 (10.5%) 𝑁 = 7 (4.9%) 𝑁 = 9 (6.3%)

Skin changes
 Pruritus81 (56.6)4321926
 Xerosis74 (51.7)3822446
 Pigmentation56 (39.4)1526922
 Fungal39 (27.2)1517412
 Bacterial21 (14.6)154110
 Viral17 (11.2)113211
 Acne14 (9.7)64220
 Kyrles10 (6.9)35101
 Eczema7 (4.8)41200
 Psoriasis4 (2.7)31000
 Drug rash3 (2.1)20001

Nail Changes
 Discoloration13 (9.09)103000
 Onychomycosis27 (18.88)1011501
 Onycholysis3 (2.10)21000

Hair and mucosal changes
 Splinter hemorrhages3 (2.10)01110
 Hair changes31 (21.7)1711210
 Mucosa39 (27.3)205554

HTN: hypertension, DM: diabetes mellitus, CGN: chronic glomerular nephritis, CIN: chronic interstitial nephritis.