Table 1: Spatial scales in Brazil (areas and distances to ensure connectivity).

Spatial ScalesStates ( )Meso-regions ( )Micro-regions ( )MCAs* ( 3,657)

398021.tab.001398021.tab.002398021.tab.003398021.tab.004

Area (in kilometres2)

Mean312,994.063,065.916,189.32,310.9
Minimum5,771.02,937.0190.08.0
Maximum1,558,987.0650,338.0439,498.0367,284.0
Std. dev.372,070.2103,804.442,082.814,157.4

Minimum distance between centroids** to ensure connectivity for all regions (in kilometres)

786.5571.5520.9401.5

Cut-offAverage number of neighbouring regions using alternative matrices

Queen3.85.15.65.9
400 km520.4
500 km84.3707.4
600 km21.7101.8894.5
700 km26.8123.61,080.9
800 km4.431.9145.61,267.3
900 km5.037.3167.11,444.2
1,000 km6.242.6188.51,611.6
1,500 km10.467.1283.72,274.7
2,000 km15.790.9377.62,916.5

Note: own elaboration from data of IBGE. *Minimum comparable areas (MCAs). **The centroids were calculated using the GeoDa software. In the menu option of GeoDa, centroids are central points. Central points are the average of the and coordinates of a polygon’s vertices.