Table 4: Summary statistics of the variables in the panel (1970–2000).

VariablesStatesMeso-regionsMicro-regionsMCAs*

Average annual income per capita growth rates between 1970 and 1980, 1980 and 1991, and 1991 and 2000Mean 0.0473 0.0475 0.0473 0.0483
Minimum−0.0266−0.0756−0.0786−0.1934
Maximum 0.1088 0.1329 0.1558 0.3709
Std. dev. 0.0422 0.0467 0.0485 0.0541

ln (income per capita), 1970, 1980 and 1991Mean 4.6197 4.4842 4.3288 4.1966
Minimum 3.2472 2.9627 2.5869 0.2718
Maximum 5.8605 5.9564 6.0514 6.2442
Std. dev. 0.5981 0.6674 0.6955 0.7041

( ), 1970, 1980, and 1991.Mean 0.0778 0.0701 0.0656 0.0594
Minimum 0.0581 0.0238 −0.0221−0.1197
Maximum 0.1986 0.1986 0.3220 0.3220
Std. dev. 0.0210 0.0180 0.0197 0.0212

ln (years of schooling), 1970, 1980, and 1991Mean 0.9977 0.8516 0.7102 0.5803
Minimum−0.1039−0.7391−1.3856−46.0517
Maximum 2.0015 2.0015 2.0015 2.1748
Std. dev. 0.4890 0.6064 0.6533 0.8238

ln (population density), 1970, 1980, and 1991Mean 2.5834 2.9085 3.0423 3.2179
Minimum−1.7278−2.2713−3.9118−3.9118
Maximum 5.6895 7.4888 8.5627 9.4510
Std. dev. 1.7605 1.6641 1.4901 1.2664

ln (transportation cost to SP), 1970, 1980, and 1991Mean 7.7425 7.4226 7.3370 7.2085
Minimum 5.3315 4.6706 3.7987 2.3026
Maximum 9.2782 9.5446 9.6053 9.6175
Std. dev. 0.8386 0.9197 0.9345 0.8734

Observations 81 402

Note: own elaboration. *Minimum comparable areas (MCAs).