Table 5: Diagnostics for spatial autocorrelation by means of Moran’s in the cross-sectional residuals of the estimations of Table 2.

Spatial scaleMinimum comparable area (MCA)Micro-regionMeso-regionState
MethodOLSFEFDSYS-GMMOLSFEFDSYS-GMMOLSFEFDSYS-GMMOLSFEFDSYS-
GMM

Spatial weight matrix: 400 km cut-off
 Moran's in the residuals (70's) 0.1204***0.1306***0.2238***
 Moran's in the residuals (80's) 0.1106***0.0677***0.1122***0.1729***
 Moran's in the residuals (90's) 0.1033***0.1286***0.1104***0.1963***

Spatial weight matrix: 500 km cut-off
 Moran's in the residuals (70's) 0.1046***0.1069***0.1897***0.1546***0.1951***0.2065***
 Moran's in the residuals (80's) 0.0855***0.0471***0.0863***0.1431***0.1296***0.1458***0.1399***0.1757***
 Moran's in the residuals (90's) 0.0741***0.1039***0.0867***0.1608***0.2291***0.2572***0.2463***0.1861***

Spatial weight matrix: 600 km cut-off
 Moran's in the residuals (70's) 0.0890***0.0857***0.1605***0.1252***0.1511***0.1623***0.1407***0.1388***0.3561***
 Moran's in the residuals (80's) 0.0661***0.0300***0.0668***0.1195***0.0938***0.1116***0.1075***0.1498***0.1634***0.2643***0.1394***0.4788**
 Moran's in the residuals (90's) 0.0482***0.0800***0.0641***0.1295***0.1955***0.2117***0.2033***0.1409***0.4009***0.3118***0.3740***0.4324***

Spatial weight matrix: 700 km cut-off
 Moran's in the residuals (70's) 0.0771***0.0687***0.1418***0.0915***0.1212***0.1180***0.1374***0.1006***0.3416***
 Moran's in the residuals (80's) 0.0513***0.0174***0.0516***0.1022***0.0690***0.0847***0.0816***0.1243***0.1319***0.2297***0.1049***0.4151***
 Moran's in the residuals (90's) 0.0283***0.0617***0.0472***0.1053***0.1641***0.1813***0.1722***0.0942***0.3633***0.2768***0.3314***0.4125***

Spatial weight matrix: 800 km cut-off
 Moran's in the residuals (70's) 0.0676***0.0518***0.1270***0.0668***0.0891***0.0807***0.0739***0.0990***0.3077***0.2449**−0.2716*−0.0141
 Moran's in the residuals (80's) 0.0388***0.0100***0.0379***0.0869***0.0532***0.0631***0.0558***0.0990***0.0857***0.1460***0.0665***0.3691***0.10960.1805*−0.13620.1021
 Moran's in the residuals (90's) 0.0159***0.0478***0.0362***0.0873***0.1381***0.1539***0.1468***0.0574***0.3456***0.2976***0.3196***0.3718***0.4721***0.3318**0.2930**0.4296***

Spatial weight matrix: 900 km cut-off
 Moran's in the residuals (70's) 0.0611***0.0364***0.1157***0.0463***0.0630***0.0534***0.02470.00840.2823***0.1646−0.2583*−0.0463
 Moran's in the residuals (80's) 0.0282***0.0077***0.0258***0.0727***0.0342***0.0505***0.0318***0.0775***0.0385**0.1088***0.00910.3263***0.05880.1788*−0.17790.1086
 Moran's in the residuals (90's) 0.0124***0.0389***0.0311***0.0758***0.1314***0.1418***0.1381***0.0373***0.2867***0.2192***0.2595***0.3350***0.5725***0.3763***0.3631**0.4639***

Spatial weight matrix: 1000 km cut-off
 Moran's in the residuals (70's) 0.0573***0.0249***0.1082***0.0322***0.0410***0.0381***−0.0059−0.02800.2380***0.0452−0.0971−0.1078
 Moran's in the residuals (80's) 0.0215***0.0080***0.0168***0.0625***0.0273***0.0461***0.0152***0.0626***0.0254*0.0946−0.01630.3020***0.2046**0.2634**0.05960.0953
 Moran's in the residuals (90's) 0.0131***0.0336***0.0293***0.0699***0.1258***0.1277***0.1291***0.0210***0.2774***0.2018***0.2529***0.3090***0.3320***0.09200.1167*0.3531***

Spatial weight matrix: 1500 km cut-off
 Moran's in the residuals (70's) 0.0417***0.0111***0.0778***0.0125***0.0092**0.0176***−0.0009−0.0367**0.1562***−0.0569−0.1001−0.1803**
 Moran's in the residuals (80's) 0.0055***0.0018***0.0030***0.0276***0.0190***0.0375***−0.00400.0296***−0.00540.0518***−0.0354***0.1892***0.0718*0.1255**0.0067−0.0171
 Moran's in the residuals (90's) 0.0154***0.0253***0.0233***0.0537***0.1034***0.0827***0.0920***0.0114***0.2035***0.1319***0.1689***0.1993***0.2859***0.07700.0765*0.2449***

Spatial weight matrix: 2000 km cut-off
 Moran's in the residuals (70's) 0.0189***0.0042***0.0399***0.0030**0.0049**0.0155***−0.0119−0.01710.0749***−0.0839−0.0643−0.0618
 Moran's in the residuals (80's) −0.0026***0.0005**−0.0018***0.0099***0.0047**0.0267***−0.0078***0.0168***0.00140.0521***−0.0273***0.1238***0.0780**−0.0146−0.08010.0635**
 Moran's in the residuals (90's) 0.0120***0.0189***0.0184***0.0317***0.0710***0.0597***0.0666***0.0116***0.13700.0922***0.1209***0.1180***0.1145**0.0247−0.00960.1253***

Note: ***significant at 1%, **significant at 5%, *significant at 10% based on the permutation approach with 10,000 permutations.