Table 5: Results of the bivariate probit regression-determinants of employment and over-education of immigrants aged 15–64.

Probability employedProbability overeducated

Demographic factors
 Age 25–34
1.075***0.222***
(0.0185)(0.0428)
 Age 35–44
1.129***0.309***
(0.0189)(0.0429)
 Age 45–640.854***0.473***
(0.0185)(0.0381)
 Male
0.502***0.259***
(0.00869)(0.0128)
 Married −0.0640***−0.0341**
(0.0127)(0.0134)
Educational attainment
 College
0.908***0.459***
(0.0137)(0.0278)
 Bachelor
0.950***0.638***
(0.0122)(0.0255)
 Graduate 0.891***0.547***
(0.0143)(0.0262)
Immigration class
 Family class
−0.269***0.0545***
(0.0140)(0.0148)
 Skilled workers
−0.0367***0.144***
(0.0104)(0.0106)
 Business class−0.107***−0.0444*
(0.0194)(0.0234)
Country of origin
 Europe
0.168***0.352***
(0.0246)(0.0246)
 Asia
0.02130.240***
(0.0231)(0.0234)
 Middle East
−0.106***0.0401
(0.0266)(0.0280)
 Africa
−0.219***0.235***
(0.0259)(0.0276)
 Caribbean and Guyana
0.0643*0.294***
(0.0352)(0.0369)
 South and Central America
0.165***0.0428
(0.0327)(0.0332)
 Oceania and Australia0.251***0.192***
(0.0584)(0.0549)
Province of residence
 Quebec
−0.475***−0.184***
(0.0154)(0.0192)
 Ontario
0.0616***0.265***
(0.0114)(0.0125)
 Atlantic
0.187***0.0949*
(0.0476)(0.0495)
 Western0.241***0.0448***
(0.0164)(0.0170)
Language ability
 Excellent and very good
0.439***−0.138***
(0.0106)(0.0157)
 well0.162***−0.0470***
(0.0104)(0.0127)
Field of study
 Educational
0.0273*
(0.0163)
 Fine arts, humanities and social science
0.0680***
(0.0125)
 No specialization
−0.0322**
(0.0164)
 Agriculture and mathematics
−0.0867***
(0.0151)
 Engineering
0.0940***
(0.0119)
 Health −0.0250
(0.0222)
Took education 0.0407***−0.0662***
(0.00889)(0.00933)
Foreign experience is recognized0.484***−0.248***
(0.0121)(0.0142)
Visible minority−0.0379**0.160***
(0.0158)(0.0163)
Number of credentials0.0400***
(0.00507)
Part time0.195***
(0.0128)
Arranged employment0.749***
(0.0253)
Relatives in Canada0.121***
(0.0105)
 Constant
−1.864***−1.793***
(0.0328)(0.0794)
 Rho
0.59***
(0.040)
 Observations134473134473

Robust standard errors are in parentheses, *** , ** , * .
Source: author’s compilation.