About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
ISRN Economics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 761482, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/761482
Research Article

The Respective Effects of Being Observed and Sanctioned in Modified Dictator and Ultimatum Games

1University of Picardie (France) and GREDEG, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, UMR n∘ 6227, 250 rue Albert Einstein, 06560 Valbonne Cedex, France
2University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis and GREDEG, UMR n∘ 6227, 250 rue Albert Einstein, 06560 Valbonne Cedex, France

Received 27 November 2012; Accepted 28 January 2013

Academic Editors: I. Shoji and E. Silva

Copyright © 2013 Agnès Festré and Pierre Garrouste. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. Fehr and U. Fischbacher, “Third-party punishment and social norms,” Evolution and Human Behavior, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 63–87, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. W. Güth and R. Tietz, “Ultimatum bargaining behavior. A survey and comparison of experimental results,” Journal of Economic Psychology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 417–449, 1990. View at Scopus
  3. C. Camerer, G. F. Loewenstein, and M. Rabin, Eds., Advances in Behavioral Economics, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 2003.
  4. E. Fehr and S. Gächter, “Cooperation and punishment in public goods experiments,” American Economic Review, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 980–994, 2000.
  5. D. Masclet and M. C. Villeval, “Punishment, inequality, and welfare: a public good experiment,” Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 475–502, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. J. Turillo, R. Folger, J. J. Lavelle, E. E. Umphress, and J. O. Gee, “Is virtue its own reward? Self-sacrificial decisions for thesake of fairness,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 839–865, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. Fehr and S. Gächter, “Altruistic punishment in humans,” Nature, vol. 415, no. 10, pp. 137–140, 2002.
  8. J. P. Carpenter and P. H. Matthews, “Norm enforcement: the role of third parties,” Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, vol. 166, no. 2, pp. 239–258, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. Fehr and K. M. Schmidt, “Fairness, incentives, and contractual choices,” European Economic Review, vol. 44, no. 4–6, pp. 1057–1068, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. Fehr and S. Gächter, “Do incentive contracts undermine voluntary cooperation?” Working Paper, University of Zurich, 2002.
  11. E. Fehr and J. A. List, “The hidden costs and returns of incentives-trust and trustworthiness among CEOs,” Journal of the European Economic Association, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 743–771, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. D. Levitt and J. A. List, “What do laboratory experiments measuring social preferences reveal about the real world?” Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 153–174, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. K. Koch and H. T. Normann, “Giving in dictator games: regard for others or regard by others?” Southern Economic Journal, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 223–231, 2005. View at Scopus
  14. E. Hoffman, K. McCabe, K. Shachat, and V. Smith, “Preferences, property rights, and anonymity in bargaining games,” Games and Economic Behavior, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 346–380, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Dana, D. M. Cain, and R. M. Dawes, “What you don't know won't hurt me: costly (but quiet) exit in dictator games,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 193–201, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Andreoni and B. D. Bernheim, “Social image and the 50-50 norm: a theoretical and experimental analysis of audience effects,” Econometrica, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 1607–1636, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. E. Bolton and R. Zwick, “Anonymity versus punishment in ultimatum bargaining,” Games and Economic Behavior, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 95–121, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. E. Bolton, K. Zwick, and E. Katok, “Dictator game giving: rules of fairness versus acts of kindness,” International Journal of Game Theory, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 269–299, 1998. View at Scopus
  19. I. Bohnet and B. S. Frey, “Social distance and other-regarding behavior in dictator games: comment,” American Economic Review, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 335–339, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. I. Bohnet and B. S. Frey, “The sound of silence in prisoner's dilemma and dictator games,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 43–57, 1999. View at Scopus
  21. N. Frohlich, J. Oppenheimer, and J. Moore, “Some doubts about measuring self-interest using dictator experiments: the costs of anonymity,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 271–290, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. C. Burnham, “Engineering altruism: a theoretical and experimental investigation of anonymity and gift giving,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 133–144, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. J. Haley and D. M. T. Fessler, “Nobody's watching? Subtle cues affect generosity an anonymous economic game,” Evolution and Human Behavior, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 245–256, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. Hoffman, K. McCabe, and V. L. Smith, “Social distance and other-regarding behavior in dictator games,” American Economic Review, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 653–660, 1996. View at Scopus
  25. G. S. Berns, J. Chappelow, C. F. Zink, G. Pagnoni, M. E. Martin-Skurski, and J. Richards, “Neurobiological correlates of social conformity and independence during mental rotation,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 245–253, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. F. Mason, R. Dyer, and M. I. Norton, “Neural mechanisms of social influence,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 152–159, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. Ellingsen and M. Johannesson, “Anticipated verbal feedback induces altruistic behavior,” Evolution and Human Behavior, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 100–105, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. Xiao and D. Houser, “Emotion expression in human punishment behavior,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 20, pp. 7398–7401, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Xiao and D. Houser, “Emotion expression and fairness in economic exchange,” Working Paper, Interdisciplinary Center for Economic Science (ICES), George Mason University, 2007.
  30. E. Mohlin and M. Johannesson, “Communication: content or relationship?” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, vol. 65, no. 3-4, pp. 409–419, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Andreoni and J. M. Rao, “The power of asking: how communication affects selfishness, empathy, and altruism,” Journal of Public Economics, vol. 95, no. 7-8, pp. 513–520, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Ferriol, “Regate-ng software,” 2011, http://regate-ng.gate.cnrs.fr/~sferriol/debian/.
  33. R. Bénabou and J. Tirole, “Incentives and prosocial behavior,” American Economic Review, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 1652–1678, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. E. Fehr and U. Fischbacher, “The economics of strong reciprocity,” in Moral Sentiments and Material Interests, The Foundations of Cooperation in Economic Life, H. Gintis, S. Bowles, and E. Fehr, Eds., MIT Press, Cambridge, UK, 2005.