Table 2: Parameters estimates for the bivariate probit with sample selection: probability of not maintaining the first job and being unemployed.

VariableNot maintaining first jobUnemployed
Coefficient Coefficient

Constant 0.154 1.83−0.914−5.47
Gender: female 0.235 5.80 0.234 4.70
Nationality: non-Spanish 0.312 3.99 0.283 3.74
Parents’ higher educational level (ref. compulsory education or lower)
 Noncompulsory secondary or lower vocational training 0.274 5.95−0.040−0.70
 University or higher vocational training 0.107 2.19 0.016 0.24
Children
 Male worker−0.025−0.24−0.349−2.82
 Female worker−0.095−0.96−0.034−0.32
Worker’s educational level and field of study: (ref. educational level: noncompulsory secondary; ref. field of study: general education)
 Compulsory secondary or lower 0.245 4.17 0.407 5.53
 Vocational training (VT) in social sciences 0.197 2.41 0.141 1.41
 VT in sciences and technology 0.110 1.41 0.102 1.07
 VT in health and welfare 0.105 0.83−0.092−0.61
 VT in other fields 0.326 3.32 0.176 1.42
 Higher vocational training−0.068−1.09−0.137−1.80
 University in social sciences 0.028 0.30−0.371−2.71
 University in sciences and technology 0.006 0.07−0.447−3.18
 University in health and welfare−0.189−1.89−0.978−5.44
 University in other fields−0.030−0.34−0.286−2.16
 Long-cycle university−0.064−0.94 0.096 0.85
First job
 Part-time −0.890−19.11
 Overeducated 0.262 7.62
 Fixed-term 0.953 31.76
Time since obtained first job (ref. >10 years)
 Less than 2 years−2.193−33.61
  2-3 years −1.335−23.30
  4-5 years −1.001−16.68
  6–10 years −0.482−9.10
Potential experience (ref. >10 years)
 Three years or less 0.524 5.16
 3 to 5 years 0.268 3.32
 5 to 10 years 0.015 0.29
Unemployment rate by gender in the quarter of the survey 0.011 4.50
GDP per capita by Autonomous Communities in 2009−0.329−2.66
Activity sector (ref. primary and industry sectors)
 Construction 0.136 2.25 0.330 4.76
 Commerce 0.077 1.57−0.200−3.25
 Transportation 0.306 4.11−0.247−2.65
 Financial services 0.255 3.80−0.084−1.06
 Public administration, education, and health 0.3784.82−0.205−2.53
 Other services 0.115 1.41−0.400−4.08
 Civil servant−0.351−4.53
Regions (ref. Southwest)
 Northwest−0.186−3.57
 Northeast−0.058−1.21
 Central 0.097 2.06
 Southeast 0.010 0.20

Correlation coefficient 0.239 3.51
Number of observations7,8504,698

The quarter of the survey has been controlled in the unemployment equation.