About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
ISRN Electrochemistry
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 865727, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/865727
Research Article

Electrodialysis of Phosphates in Industrial-Grade Phosphoric Acid

1Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Electroquímica S.C. Parque, Tecnológico Querétaro, 76703 Sanfandila Pedro Escobedo, QRO, Mexico
2Universidad Tecnológica de Querétaro, 76148 Querétaro, QRO, Mexico
3Universidad del Mar, Ciudad Universitaria, Puerto Ángel, 70902 Distrito de San Pedro Pochutla, OAX, Mexico

Received 27 August 2013; Accepted 31 October 2013

Academic Editors: M. Barragán and H. Zhao

Copyright © 2013 J. J. Machorro et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Villalba, Y. Liu, H. Schroder, and R. U. Ayres, “Global phosphorus flows in the industrial economy from a production perspective,” Journal of Industrial Ecology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 557–569, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. Ghouse and H. Abaoud, “Materials used in the development of a 1 kW phospshoric acid fuel cell stack,” Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 201–206, 1999. View at Scopus
  3. H.-Y. Kwak, H.-S. Lee, J.-Y. Jung, J.-S. Jeon, and D.-R. Park, “Exergetic and thermoeconomic analysis of a 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cell plant,” Fuel, vol. 83, no. 14-15, pp. 2087–2094, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. J. Kepfer and W. R. Devor, “Phosphoric acid purification,” U.S. Patent 2,174,158, 1939.
  5. D. Goldstein, “Phosphoric acid purification,” U.S. Patent 3,819,810, 1974.
  6. D. H. Michalski and V. Srinivasan, “Process of removing cationic impurities from wet process phosphoric acid,” U.S. Patent 4,639,359, 1987.
  7. L. W. Bierman, M. L. Lopez, and J. E. Perkins, “Purification of phosphoric acid,” U.S. Patent: 4,877,594, 1989.
  8. A. I. Alonso, A. M. Urtiaga, S. Zamacona, A. Irabien, and I. Ortiz, “Kinetic modelling of cadmium removal from phosphoric acid by non-dispersive solvent extraction,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 130, no. 1-2, pp. 193–203, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. F. T. Haraldsen, “Method for removal of heavy metals from phosphoric acid containing solutions,” U.S. Patent 4,986,970, 1991.
  10. H. J. Skidmore and K. J. Hutter, “Methods of purifying phosphoric acid,” U.S. Patent 5,945,000, 1999.
  11. L. H. Reyes, I. S. Medina, R. N. Mendoza, J. R. Vázquez, M. A. Rodríguez, and E. Guibal, “Extraction of cadmium from phosphoric acid using resins impregnated with organophosphorus extractants,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 1422–1433, 2001. View at Scopus
  12. M. P. González, R. Navarro, I. Saucedo, M. Avila, J. Revilla, and C. Bouchard, “Purification of phosphoric acid solutions by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration,” Desalination, vol. 147, no. 1–3, pp. 315–320, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Hotta and F. Kubota, “Method for purification of phosphoric acid high purity polyphosphoric acid,” U.S. Patent: 6,861,039, 2005.
  14. M. P. González Muñoz, R. Navarro, I. Saucedo et al., “Hydrofluoric acid treatment for improved performance of a nanofiltration membrane,” Desalination, vol. 191, no. 1–3, pp. 273–278, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Hannachi, D. Habaili, C. Chtara, and A. Ratel, “Purification of wet process phosphoric acid by solvent extraction with TBP and MIBK mixtures,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 212–216, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. A. El-Asmy, H. M. Serag, M. A. Mahdy, and M. I. Amin, “Purification of phosphoric acid by minimizing iron, copper, cadmium and fluoride,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 287–292, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Ishikawa, K. Yokoi, K. Takeuchi, Y. Kurita, and H. Uchiyama, “High purity phosphoric acid and process of producing the same,” U.S. Patent: 7,470,414,B2, 2008.
  18. M. I. Amin, M. M. Ali, H. M. Kamal, A. M. Youssef, and M. A. Akl, “Recovery of high grade phosphoric acid from wet process acid by solvent extraction with aliphatic alcohols,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 105, no. 1-2, pp. 115–119, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. W. Loest and J. T. Schaefer, “Production of monobasic potassium phosphate by electrodialysis,” US Patent: 4,033,842, 1977.
  20. T. R. Hanley, H.-K. Chiu, and R. J. Urban, “Phosphoric acid concentration by electrodialysis,” AIChE Symposium Series, vol. 82, pp. 121–132, 1986.
  21. D. Touaibia, H. Kerdjoudj, and A. T. Cherif, “Concentration and purification of wet industrial phosphoric acid by electro-electrodialysis,” Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1071–1073, 1996. View at Scopus
  22. S. A. Ueda, “Method for purifying phosphoric acid,” Japanese Patent Kokai No. Sho 48 [1973]-10312, 1973.
  23. M. B. C. Elleuch, M. B. Amor, and G. Pourcelly, “Phosphoric acid purification by a membrane process: electrodeionization on ion-exchange textiles,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 285–290, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. K. Litsis and B. A. Popov, “Method of extraction of phosphoric acid,” Russian Inventor's Certification No.443839, 1974.
  25. T. Yamabe, “Method for the manufacture of phosphoric acid,” Japanese Patent Kokai No. Sho 48 [1976]-106696, 1976.
  26. T. Yoshihara, “A method for refining phosphoric acid,” Japanese Patent Kokai No. Sho 53 [1978]-96994, 1978.
  27. K. Moeglich, “Electrochemical processes utilizing layered membrane electrochemical processes utilizing layered membrane,” U.S. Patent 4,326,935, 1982.
  28. P. Długołecki, K. Nymeijer, S. Metz, and M. Wessling, “Current status of ion exchange membranes for power generation from salinity gradients,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 319, no. 1-2, pp. 214–222, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Högfeldt, Stability Constants of Metal-Ion Complexes. Part A: Inorganic Ligands, vol. 21 of IUPAC Chemical Data Series, Pergamon Press, 1982.
  30. D. D. Perrin, Dissociation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution, IUPAC, Butterworths, London, UK, 1969.
  31. A. E. Martell and R. M. Smith, Critical Stability Constants, vol. 4 of Inorganic Complexes, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1976.
  32. J. N. Butler, Ionic Equilibrium: Solubility and PH Calculations, John Wiley & Sons, Toronto, Canada, 1998.
  33. T. S. Sorensen, Interfacial Electrodynamics of Membranes and Polymer Films, in Surface Chemistry and Electrochemistry of Membranes, CRC Press, New York, NY, USA, 1999.
  34. U. López-García, R. Antaño-López, G. Orozco, T. Chapman, and F. Castaneda, “Characterization of electrodialysis membranes by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at low polarization and by Raman spectroscopy,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 375–381, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. R. Migneault and R. K. Forcé, “Dissociation constants of phosphoric acid at 25°C and the ion pairing of sodium with orthophosphate ligands at 25°C,” Journal of Solution Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 987–997, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. D. Pethybridge, J. D. R. Talbot, and W. A. House, “Precise conductance measurements on dilute aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium hydrogenphosphate and dihydrogenphosphate,” Journal of Solution Chemistry, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 381–393, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. I. Puigdomenech, Make Equilibrium Diagrams Using Sophisticated Algorithms (MEDUSA), Inorganic Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 2004.
  38. M. Azaroual, C. Kervevan, A. Lassin et al., “Thermo-kinetic and physico-chemical modeling of processes generating scaling problems in phosphoric acid and fertilizers production industries,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 46, pp. 68–675, 2012.
  39. V. M. M. Lobo, Handbook of Electrolyte Solutions, Part A. Physical, vol. 41 of Sciences Data, Elsevier Science, New York, NY, USA, 1989.
  40. F. A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson, Química Inorgánica Avanzada, Limusa, Cancun, Mexico, 1st edition, 1993.
  41. M. Cherif, A. Mgaidi, N. Ammar, G. Vallée, and W. Fürst, “A new investigation of aqueous orthophosphoric acid speciation using Raman spectroscopy,” Journal of Solution Chemistry, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 255–269, 2000. View at Scopus
  42. W. W. Rudolph, “Raman-spectroscopic measurements of the first dissociation constant of aqueous phosphoric acid solution from 5 to 301°C,” Journal of Solution Chemistry, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 630–645, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. Diallo, M. Rabiller-Baudry, K. Khaless, and B. Chaufer, “On the electrostatic interactions in the transfer mechanisms of iron during nanofiltration in high concentrated phosphoric acid,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 427, pp. 37–47, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. N. Pismenskaya, E. Laktionov, V. Nikonenko, A. El Attar, B. Auclair, and G. Pourcelly, “Dependence of composition of anion-exchange membranes and their electrical conductivity on concentration of sodium salts of carbonic and phosphoric acids,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 181, no. 2, pp. 185–197, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. N. Pismenskaya, V. Nikonenko, B. Auclair, and G. Pourcelly, “Transport of weak-electrolyte anions through anion exchange membranes: Current-voltage characteristics,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 189, no. 1, pp. 129–140, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Koter and M. Kultys, “Modeling the electric transport of sulfuric and phosphoric acids through anion-exchange membranes,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 219–229, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. V. Koleva and V. Stefov, “Phosphate ion vibrations in dihydrogen phosphate salts of the type M(H2PO4)2·2H2O (M = Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd): Spectra-structure correlate,” Vibrational Spectroscopy, vol. 64, pp. 89–100, 2013.