- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 390160, 8 pages
Voltage Mode Astable Multivibrator Using Single CDBA
1Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, Delhi 110042, India
2Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826004, India
Received 21 January 2013; Accepted 14 February 2013
Academic Editors: H. A. Alzaher and H.-C. Chien
Copyright © 2013 Rajeshwari Pandey et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This paper aims at presenting three voltage mode square wave generator circuits using single current differencing buffered amplifier (CDBA), a recently proposed mixed mode building block. The first proposed circuit produces a variable frequency output having fixed duty cycle, whereas the rest of the circuits have variable duty cycle. One of the circuits uses passive element adjustment to control the duty cycle, whereas electronic control is used in the other circuit. The workability of the proposed circuits is confirmed through SPICE simulations and experimental work.
It is well known that inherent wide bandwidth which is virtually independent of closed loop gain, greater linearity and large dynamic range  are the key performance features of current mode technique. The CDBA is one such active element which exploits these advantages. In addition, it is free from parasitic capacitances  and, hence, is appropriate for high frequency operation. It provides further flexibility to the designers, enabling a variety of circuit designs, as it can operate in both current and voltage modes .
The square wave generator finds extensive applications in communication systems, control systems, instrumentation, and signal processing. The literature review reveals that several triangular/square wave generators using various analog building blocks have already been presented [4–11]. All these designs use a current source to alternately charge and discharge a capacitor followed by a Schmitt trigger to generate triangular/square wave. Conventional voltage-mode square wave generators  employ an op-amp working in the nonlinear region to produce a square wave signal. These voltage-mode generators, however, have a limitation on their maximum frequency due to lower slew rate and constant gain-bandwidth product of the op-amps.
Triangular/square wave generators presented in [5–11] use current mode building-blocks-based circuits. The study of these circuits reveals that (i)references [5, 6, 10] employ more than one active element;(ii)references [6–10] use four or more passive elements;(iii)references [6–11] lack electronic controllability of duty cycle of output.
The aim of this paper is to present three square wave generator circuits using single CDBA and three to five passive elements. In Section 2, the function of a CDBA is introduced followed by the description of proposed circuits with analytical formulation for the frequency of oscillation. Section 3 explores the effect of nonidealities of CDBA on the proposed circuits. PSPICE simulation results and experimental results are presented in Section 4 which are in confirmation with the theoretical propositions. Section 5 concludes the paper.
2. Circuit Descriptions
The circuit symbol of CDBA is shown in Figure 1. The port characteristics are given as follows
2.1. Circuit I
The circuit for the astable multivibrator is shown in Figure 2. It uses a single CDBA block, two resistors and a capacitor. The resistor and capacitor form a positive feedback loop. The load resistance connected to the terminal is large enough to drive the device output into one of the two saturation levels or . This results in charging of the capacitor present in the feedback loop. When the voltage across the capacitor reaches a value at which the current through is not large enough to maintain the output voltage at the output switches to and the capacitor starts charging in the opposite direction as shown in Figure 3.
Routine analysis suggests that the output will switch between its maximum and minimum value when the capacitor voltage reaches the following two threshold voltages: The time required to charge the capacitor from a value of to is given by Similarly, time taken for discharging () from to is From (4) and (5), it is clear that .
Thus, the output of the multivibrator is a symmetric square wave having amplitudes of and , at a frequency () given by Though the circuit is simple and output frequency can be controlled through passive components, however, the on and off duty cycles of the output are fixed at 50%.
2.2. Circuit II
The circuit of Figure 2 can be modified for variable duty cycle output by replacing the resistor with two diodes and two resistors and is depicted in Figure 4. It is based on the scheme discussed in  and has been adapted for implementation with CDBA.
Neglecting the drop across the diodes, the parameters , , and may be obtained as From (9) and (10), the frequency () of modified square wave generator can be written as It can be seen clearly that and can be controlled by changing and .
2.3. Circuit III
The circuit shown in Figure 5 is another astable multivibrator. In this circuit, the duty cycle can be electronically controlled by the application of an external DC source .
Routine analysis for this circuit gives the and as These values of and result in and as follows: These results show that the on and off duty cycles of the output can be controlled with the help of externally applied voltage .
3. Realizing a CDBA and Nonideality Analysis
In the analysis so far, ideal characteristics of the CDBA were considered. However, in this section, the effect of the parameters of a practical model of the CDBA is investigated. For the proposed circuits, the CDBA was realized using current feedback operational amplifier (CFOA) ICAD844 as shown in Figure 6 . The equivalent circuit of Figure 6, which uses practical model of AD844 , is shown in Figure 7. Herein, the CFOAs have been replaced with current conveyors having finite input resistances and finite resistance at its terminal . Ideally, the input resistance at the terminal is zero and is infinite at the terminal. For the AD844 CFOA, the input resistances Ω and MΩ . This circuit is used for exploring the nonideal behavior of all the three proposed circuits.
From Figure 7, various currents can be calculated as follows:
Ideally, should be equal to , which can be approximated only if , which is true for AD844. Also, the approximation that the input terminals are virtually grounded will be true only if the external resistance at the input terminal of the CDBA is much larger than . If these two conditions are satisfied, the CDBA constructed with AD844 closely approximates an ideal CDBA.
Taking into account the afore mentioned approximations, from (15), , the current from terminal, can be calculated as And the output voltage is given as If the equivalent circuit of CDBA constructed with AD844 is used in Figure 2 (circuit I), then the threshold limits of the output get modified to Since and , (18) and (19) reduce to (2) and (3), respectively.
The threshold limits of the output of Figure 4 (circuit II), on using the equivalent CDBA model, get modified to where and are forward resistances of the diodes and , respectively, and are of very small order as compared to and . Also, since and , (20) and (21) can be approximated to (7) and (8), respectively.
Similarly, for the astable circuit shown in Figure 5 (circuit III), the modified threshold limits of the output can be expressed as
The external resistance at the input of the CDBA should be much larger than so that the feedback current can be absorbed into the input terminals. Since , , , and , (22) and (23) reduce to (12) and (13), respectively.
4. Simulation and Experimental Results
To validate the theoretical predictions, the proposed astable multivibrator circuits have been simulated using PSPICE macromodel of current feedback operational amplifier (CFOA) AD 844 and experimented using commercially available AD 844AN. The CDBA realization using CFOA AD 844 is shown in Figure 6. Simulations were carried out to investigate the maximum and minimum frequencies that proposed circuit configuration of Figure 2 (circuit I) can offer before the output signal gets distorted. Supply voltage of ±10 V was used for simulations. Figure 8 shows the output of the proposed circuit for minimum and maximum frequencies which can be achieved, with frequency deviation not more than 5%. The simulated square wave output obtained with component values as KΩ, KΩ and F is shown in Figure 8(a). This is the minimum frequency that can be obtained from the circuit and its value is observed to be 2 Hz as against the theoretically computed value of 1.9 Hz. Similarly output for maximum achievable frequency is shown in Figure 8(b). Component values used are KΩ, KΩ and pF. The simulated frequency is noted to be 1.2 MHz showing a minor deviation from the theoretically calculated value of 1.14 MHz.
To test the tunability of this circuit, the variation in frequency, against the passive components , , and , was observed. The variation of frequency against the capacitor is presented in Figure 9(a), whereas Figures 9(b) and 9(c) plot the variations against the resistors and , respectively.
The circuit configuration of Figure 4 (circuit II) was simulated to investigate the variation of duty cycle by changing the passive component values. A typical output of this circuit is given in Figure 10(a), wherein curve (1) is plotted for KΩ and KΩ and curve (2) for KΩ and KΩ. The values of and are kept as 40 KΩ 1 nF, respectively, for both curves. It clearly shows that the on and off periods of the output are not fixed anymore. Figure 10(b) shows the plot of the calculated frequency and the simulated frequency of oscillation as a function of while keeping KΩ, KΩ, and KΩ. The deviation in frequency arises since the voltage drop across the diodes and their forward resistance is not taken into account in calculations.
Figure 11 shows the output of circuit III for three different values of , that is, 2 V, 5 V, and −2 V, while rest of the component values are chosen as K, = 40 K, K, and nF. It is evident that the output frequency and duty cycle can be controlled using .
Figure 12(a) shows the comparison between the calculated frequency and the simulated frequency of oscillations as a function of , and Figure 12(b) shows variation of duty cycle with , for component values of K, K, K, and nF. It is observed that all the simulated results are found in close agreement with the theoretically formulated values.
The functionality of the proposed square wave generator circuits is verified experimentally as well. The commercial AD844AN is used to implement a CDBA. Supply voltages used are ±10 V.
Figure 13 shows typical experimental results for circuit I for three different frequencies. Figure 13(a) is output for component values of KΩ, KΩ, and nF. The measured frequency of 1.547 KHz closely matches the theoretical frequency of 1.46 KHz as obtained from (6). Output for component values of KΩ, KΩ, and nF is shown in Figure 13(b), wherein the measured frequency of oscillation is 123.3 KHz as against the computed value of 130 KHz. Another screen shot of oscilloscope is shown in Figure 13(c) for KΩ, KΩ, and pF. Observed output is having a frequency of oscillation as 824 KHz and the corresponding calculated value is found to be 1.14 MHz. Experimental outputs for the circuit III are shown in Figure 14 for different values of , which depicts the variation of duty cycle with .
Three astable multivibrator circuits using single CDBA are proposed. The first circuit (circuit I) produces a variable frequency output with fixed duty cycle. The other two proposed circuits (circuit II and circuit III) provide output with variable duty cycle; for circuit II, duty cycle control is accomplished through passive component adjustment, and for circuit III, electronic control is used. Nonideality analysis is presented to explore the effect of the parameters of a practical model of the CDBA. The workability of the proposed circuits is demonstrated through SPICE simulations and experimental work. AD-844-based CDBA is used for simulation and hardware circuit tests. Results are found to be in conformity with the proposed theory.
- C. Toumazou, F. J. Lidgey, and D. G. Haigh, Analogue IC Design: The Current Mode Approach, Peregrinus, London, UK, 1990.
- C. Acar and S. Ozoguz, “A new versatile building block: current differencing buffered amplifier suitable for analog signal-processing filters,” Microelectronics Journal, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 157–160, 1999.
- C. Cakir and O. Cicekoglu, “Low-voltage high-performance CMOS current differencing buffered amplifier (CDBA),” in Proceedings of the 4th Ph.D. Research in Microelectronics and Electronics Conference (PRIME '08), pp. 37–40, June 2008.
- A. Sedra and K. C. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, Oxford University Press, London, UK, 4th edition, 1998.
- W.-S. Chung, H. Kim, H. W. Cha, and H. J. Kim, “Triangular/square-wave generator with independently controllable frequency and amplitude,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 105–109, 2005.
- D. Pal, A. Srinivasulu, B. B. Pal, A. Demosthenous, and B. N. Das, “Current conveyor-based square/triangular waveform generators with improved linearity,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 2174–2180, 2009.
- B. Almashary and H. Alhokail, “Current-mode triangular wave generator using CCIIs,” Microelectronics Journal, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 239–243, 2000.
- M. T. Abuelma'atti and S. M. Al-Shahrani, “New CFOA-based triangular/square wave generator,” International Journal of Electronics, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 583–588, 1998.
- M. B. Amer and M. A. Ibbini, “Novel single-element- controlled CFOA-based square wave oscillator,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Systems Signals and Devices, pp. 1–5, 2005.
- A. K. M. S. Haque, M. M. Hossain, W. A. Davis, H. T. Russell, and R. L. Carter, “Design of sinusoidal, triangular, and square wave generator using current feedback operational amplifier (CFOA),” in Proceedings of the IEEE Region 5 Conference, pp. 1–5, April 2008.
- C. L. Hou, H. C. Chien, and Y. K. Lo, “Square wave generators employing OTRAs,” IEE Proceedings Circuits, Devices & Systems, vol. 152, no. 6, pp. 718–722, 2005.
- S. Ozcan, A. Toker, C. Acar, H. Kuntman, and O. Cicekoglu, “Single resistance-controlled sinusoidal oscillators employing current differencing buffered amplifier,” Microelectronics Journal, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 169–174, 2000.
- AD844 Current Feedback Op-Amp Data Sheet, Analog Devices Inc., Norwood, Mass, USA, 1990.