Table 1: Epidemiological studies on the association of insulin treatment with cancer incidence or cancer-related mortality in type 2 diabetes.

Study [Ref.] Outcome Main result*Confounders
Adiposity Duration DM Glucose control Comorbidities Medications Ethnicity Socioeconomic Education Smoking Alcohol Dietary factors Physical activity

Studies included in the meta-analysis of Janghorbani et al. [44]
Yang et al., 2004 [31]Colorectal cancer2.10 [1.20–3.40]++++
Bowker et al., 2006 [32]Cancer mortality1.90 [1.50–2.40]+
Monami et al., 2008 [33]Cancer mortality2.11 [1.01–4.50]+++++++
Colhoun, 2009 [40]All cancers1.73 [0.98–3.05]+++++
Currie et al., 2009 [34]All cancers1.42 [1.27–1.60]+++++
Hemkens et al., 2009 [35]All cancers1.19 [1.09–1.29]+
Jonasson et al., 2009 [45]All cancers1.06 [0.90–1.25]+++++
Li et al., 2009 [36]Pancreatic cancer4.99 [2.59–9.61]++++
Monami et al., 2009 [46]All cancers1.01 [0.64–1.59]+++++++
Vinikoor et al., 2009 [42]Colorectal cancer1.74 [0.92–3.31]++++++++
Campbell et al., 2010 [47]Colorectal cancer1.02 [0.79–1.30]+++++++++
Donadon et al., 2010 [48]Hepatocellular carcinoma1.24 [0.45–3.36]+++++
Hassan et al., 2010 [41]Hepatocellular carcinoma1.90 [0.80–4.60]+++
Yang et al., 2010 [2]All cancers0.17 [0.09–0.32]++++
Baur et al., 2011 [37]All cancers3.87 [1.53–9.81]+++

Other studies
Tseng, 2011 [43]Bladder cancer1.43 [0.90–2.26]+++
Bodmer et al., 2012 [38]Pancreatic cancer2.29 [1.34–3.92]++++
Van Staa et al., 2012 [39]All cancers1.79 [1.53-2.10]+++++