Table 1: Diabetes urinary protein biomarkers. aAccession number in National Center for Biotechnology Information databases. DM: Diabetic patients; DN: Diabetic nephropathy; DM-NP: Diabetic patients with macro- or microalbuminuria.

45.861Haptoglobin precursorP00738MetabolismType 2 DM-NPDownregulatedDIGE followed MALD1-TOF-MS[29]
46,707 𝛼 1-antitrypsinP01009Defense responseType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedDIGE followed LC/MS/MS peptide analysis [19]
51,643 𝛼 1-microglobulin/bikunin precursorP02790TransportType 2 DM-NPDownregulatedDIGE followed LC/MS/MS peptide analysis[19]
51,643HemopexinP02790Defense responseType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedDIGE followed LC/MS/MS peptide analysis [19]
52,964Vitamin D-binding proteinP02774TransportType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedDIGE followed LC/MS/MS peptide analysis [19]
54,239 𝛼 1B- GlycoproteinP04217Function not assignedType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedDIGE followed LC/MS/MS peptide analysis [19]
71,317AlbuminP02768TransportType 2 DMUpregulatedTwo-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography followed by MALDI[20]
71,317Serum albumin precursorP02768TransportType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedDIGE followed MALDI-TOF-MS [29]
72,451Uromodulin precursorP07911Defense responscType 2 DM-NPDownregulatedDIGE followed MALDI-TOF-MS[29]
72,984Kininogen precursorP01042Defense responseType 2 OM-NPUpregulatedDIGE followed MALDI-TOF-MS [29]
97.853Epithelial-cadherinP12830Cell adhesionType 2 DMUpregulatedTwo-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography followed by MALDI[20]
97,853Epithelial-cadherinP12830Cell adhesionType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedDIGE followed MALDI-TOF-MS[29]
2,049 Collagen 𝛼 -1 (I) chain precursor P02452 Structural Component Type 2 DM-NP and NP Upregulated MALDl/TOF/TOF [31]
2,063Collagen alpha-1 (III) chainP02461Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type i dmCZE-MS [28]
2,192Collagen 𝛼 -1(I) chainP02452Structural ComponentType 2 DM-NPDownregulatedCZE coupled with ES1 mass spectrometry [25]
2,192Collagen alpha-1(I) chainP02452Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type 1dmCZE-MS [28]
2,339Collagen alpha-1(I) chainP02452Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type 1 dmCZE-MS [28]
2,377Collagen 𝛼 -1(I) chain [227 to 250]P02452Structural ComponentType 2 DM-NPDownregulatedCZE coupled with ESI mass spectrometry [25]
2,430Collagen alpha-1(I) chainP02452Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type 1 dmCZE-MS [28]
2,487Collagen alpha-1(I) chainP02452Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type 1dmCZE-MS [28]
2,687Collagen alpha-1(I) chainP02452Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type 1 dmCZE-MS [28]
3,092Collagen alpha-1(I) chainP02452Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type 1 dmCZE-MS [28]
3,617Collagen alpha-2(I) chainP08123Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type i dmCZE-MS[28]
3,802Collagen alpha-2(I) chainP08123Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type 1 dmCZE-MS [28]
11,773Ig Kappa Chain C regionP01834Defense responseType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedDIGE followed MALDI-TOF-MS [29]
11,774 𝛽 2-microglobulinP61769Defense responseType 2 DM-NP with ProteinuriaUpregulatedanion exchange, reversed-phase fractionation, gel electrophoresis and SELDI-TOF MS [18]
13,234Calgranulin BP06702Defense responseType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedUsing DIGE followed LC/MS/MS peptide analysis [19]
2,049Collagen 𝛼 -1 (I) chain precursorP02452Structural ComponentType 2 DM-NP and NPUpregulatedMALD/TOF/TOF [31]
2,063Collagen alpha-1 (III) chainP02461Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type 1 dmCZE-MS[28]
2,192Collagen 𝛼 -1(I) chainP02452Structural ComponentType 2 DM-NPDownregulatedCZE coupled with ESI mass spectrometry [25]
2,192Collagen alpha-1 (I) chainP02452Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type 1 dmCZE-MS [28]
2,339Collagen alpha-1 (I) chainP02452Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type 1 dmCZE-MS [28]
2,377Collagen 𝛼 -1 (I) chain [227 to 250]P02452Structural ConioonentType 2 DM-NPDownregulatedCZE coupled with ESI mass spectrometry [25]
2,430Collagen alpha-1 (I) chainP02452Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type 1 dmCZE-MS [28]
2,487Collagen alpha-1 (I) chainP02452Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type 1 dmCZE-MS[28]
2,687Collagen alpha-1 (I) chainP02452Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type 1 dmCZE-MS [28]
3,092Collagen alpha-1 (I) chainP02452Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type 1 dmCZE-MS[28]
3,617Collagen alpha-2(I) chainP08123Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type 1 dmCZE-MS [28]
3,802Collagen alpha-2(l) chainP08123Structural ComponentType 2 DMDownregulated with respect to type 1 dmCZE-MS [28]
11,773Ig Kappa Chain C regionP01834Defense responseType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedDIGE followed MALDI-TOF-MS [29]
11,774 𝛽 2-microglobulinP61769Defense responseType 2 DM- NP with ProteinuriaUpregulatedanion exchange, reversed-phase fractionation, gel electrophoresis and SELDI-TOF MS [18]
13,234Calgranulin BP06702Defense responseType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedUsing DIGE followed LC/MS/MS peptide analysis [19]
45,861 Haptoglobin precursor P00738 Metabolism Type 2 DM-NP Downregulated DIGE followed MALDI-TOF-MS [29]
46,707 𝛼 1-antitrypsinP01009Defense responseType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedDIGE followed LC/MS/MS peptide analysis [19]
51,643 𝛼 1-microglobulin/bikunin precursorP02790TransportType 2 DM-NPDownregulatedDIGE followed LC/MS/MS peptide analysis [19]
51,643HemopexinP02790Defense responseType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedDIGE followed LC/MS/MS peptide analysis [19]
52,964Vitamin D-binding proteinP02774TransportType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedDIGE followed LC/MS/MS peptide analysis [19]
54,239 𝛼 1B-GlycoproteinP04217Function not assignedType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedDIGE followed LC/MS/MS peptide analysis [19]
71,317AlbuminP02768TransportType 2 DMUpregulatedTwo-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography followed by MALDI[20]
71,317Serum albumin precursorP02768TransportType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedDIGE followed MALDI-TOF-MS [29]
72,451Uromodulin precursorP07911Defense responseType 2 DM-NPDownregulatedDIGE followed MALDI-TOF-MS[29]
72,984Kininogen precursorP01042Defense responseType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedDIGE followed MALDI-TOF-MS [29]
97,853Epithelial-cadherinP12830Cell adhesionType 2 DMUpregulatedTwo-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography followed by MALDI[20]
97,853Epithelial-cadherinP12830Cell adhesionType 2 DM-NPUpregulatedDIGE followed MALDI-TOF-MS[29]