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ISRN Endocrinology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 509764, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/509764
Review Article

Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders

1Department of Biomedical Science and Technology, Maseno University, P.O. Box 333-40105, Maseno, Kenya
2Department of Medical Laboratory, Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, P.O. Box 3-30100, Eldoret, Kenya
3Department of Human Pathology, School of Medicine, Moi University, P.O. Box 4606-30100, Eldoret, Kenya

Received 9 May 2013; Accepted 4 June 2013

Academic Editors: J.-F. Hu and D. F. Skafar

Copyright © 2013 M. A. Iddah and B. N. Macharia. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purpose of Review. Studies have been published in the field of autoimmune thyroid diseases since January 2005. The review is organized into areas of etiology, autoimmune features, autoantibodies, mechanism of thyroid cell injury, B-cell responses, and T-cell responses. Also it reviews the diagnosis and the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease, neoplasm, and kidney disorders. Recent Findings. Autoimmune thyroid diseases have been reported in people living in different parts of the world including North America, Europe, Baalkans, Asia, Middle East, South America, and Africa though the reported figures do not fully reflect the number of people infected per year. Cases are unrecognized due to inaccurate diagnosis and hence are treated as other diseases. However, the most recent studies have shown that the human autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) affect up to 5% of the general population and are seen mostly in women between 30 and 50 years. Summary. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the result of a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Overall, this review has expanded our understanding of the mechanism involved in pathogenesis of AITD and the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease, neoplasm, and kidney disease. It has opened new lines of investigations that will ultimately result in a better clinical practice.