About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
ISRN Endocrinology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 509764, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/509764
Review Article

Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders

1Department of Biomedical Science and Technology, Maseno University, P.O. Box 333-40105, Maseno, Kenya
2Department of Medical Laboratory, Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, P.O. Box 3-30100, Eldoret, Kenya
3Department of Human Pathology, School of Medicine, Moi University, P.O. Box 4606-30100, Eldoret, Kenya

Received 9 May 2013; Accepted 4 June 2013

Academic Editors: J.-F. Hu and D. F. Skafar

Copyright © 2013 M. A. Iddah and B. N. Macharia. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. V. Kumar, “24: The endocrine system,” in Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Mechanisms of Disease, p. 1113, Elsevier, Philidelphia, Pa, USA, 8th edition, 2010.
  2. N. Dorairajan and K. Akshaya, “Total versus subotal thyroidectomy in grave’s disease: a retrospective analysis,” Indian Journal of Surgery, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 506–510, 2002.
  3. Cureresearch.comTM (2000–2005), AdviwarePtyLtd., 2009, http://www.cureresearch.com/a/autoimmune_thyroiddiseases/stats-co.
  4. M. P. J. Vanderpump, W. M. G. Tunbridge, J. M. French et al., “The incidence of thyroid disorders in the community: a twenty-year follow-up of the Whickham Survey,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 55–68, 1995. View at Scopus
  5. H. Hadj-Kacem, S. Rebuffat, M. Mnif-Féki, S. Belguith-Maalej, H. Ayadi, and S. Péraldi-Roux, “Autoimmune thyroid diseases: genetic susceptibility of thyroid-specific genes and thyroid autoantigens contributions,” International Journal of Immunogenetics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 85–96, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. P. Weetman and A. M. McGregor, “Autoimmune thyroid disease: further developments in our understanding,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 788–830, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. Eguchi, N. Matsuoka, and S. Nagataki, “Cellular immunity in autoimmune thyroid disease,” Bailliere's Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 71–94, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Huber, F. Menconi, S. Corathers, E. M. Jacobson, and Y. Tomer, “Joint genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis: from epidemiology to mechanisms,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 697–725, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Tomer and A. Huber, “The etiology of autoimmune thyroid disease: a story of genes and environment,” Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 32, no. 3-4, pp. 231–239, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. Hashimoto, “Zyr Kenntniss der lymphomatosen veranderung der schilddruse (strauma lymphomatosa),” Archiv für klinische Chirurgie, vol. 97, pp. 219–248, 1912.
  11. M. A. Iddah, B. N. Macharia, A. G. Ng’wena, A. Keter, and A. V. O. Ofulla, “Thryroid hormones and hematological indices levels in thyroid disorders patients at Moi teaching and referral hospital, Western Kenya,” ISRN Endocrinology, vol. 2013, Article ID 385940, 6 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. G. J. Canaris, N. R. Manowitz, G. Mayor, and E. C. Ridgway, “The Colorado thyroid disease prevalence study,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 160, no. 4, pp. 526–534, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. L. Chiovato, P. Bassi, F. Santini et al., “Antibodies producing complement-mediated thyroid cytotoxicity in patients with atrophic or goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 1700–1705, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. H. Brix, K. O. Kyvik, K. Christensen, and L. Hegedüs, “Evidence for a major role of heredity in Graves' disease: a population-based study of two Danish twin cohorts,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 930–934, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Y. Ban, D. A. Greenberg, E. Concepcion, L. Skrabanek, R. Villanueva, and Y. Tomer, “Amino acid substitutions in the thyroglobulin gene are associated with susceptibility to human and murine autoimmune thyroid disease,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 25, pp. 15119–15124, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. S. Cooper, “Antithyroid drugs,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, no. 9, pp. 905–917, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. Hanafusa, R. Pujol-Borrell, and L. Chiovato, “Aberrant expression of HLA-DR antigen on thyrocytes in Graves' disease: relevance for autoimmunity,” Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8359, pp. 1111–1115, 1983. View at Scopus
  18. R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, and S. I. Robins, “The thyroid,” in Pathological Bases of Disease, S. I. Robins, Ed., WB Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 5th edition, 1994.
  19. G. F. Bottazzo, R. P. Borrell, T. Hanafusa, and M. Feldmann, “Role of aberrant HLA-DR expression and antigen presentation in induction of endocrine autoimmunity,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8359, pp. 1115–1118, 1983. View at Scopus
  20. P.-W. Wang, R.-T. Liu, S.-H. Juo et al., “Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 polymorphism and relapse of Graves’ hyperthyroidism after antithyroid withdrawal,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 169–173, 2004.
  21. D. S. Neufeld, M. Platzer, and T. F. Davies, “Reovirus induction of MHC class II antigen in rat thyroid cells,” Endocrinology, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 543–545, 1989. View at Scopus
  22. E. L. Khoury, L. Pereira, and F. S. Greenspan, “Induction of HLA-DR expression on thyroid follicular cells by cytomegalovirus infection in vitro: evidence for a dual mechanism of induction,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 138, no. 5, pp. 1209–1223, 1991. View at Scopus
  23. H. Kimura and T. F. Davies, “Thyroid-specific T cells in the normal Wistar rat. II. T cell clones interact with cloned Wistar rat thyroid cells and provide direct evidence for autoantigen presentation by thyroid epithelial cells,” Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 195–206, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Londei, J. R. Lamb, G. F. Bottazzo, and M. Feldmann, “Epithelial cells expressing aberrant MHC class II determinants can present antigen to cloned human T cells,” Nature, vol. 312, no. 5995, pp. 639–641, 1984. View at Scopus
  25. N. Shimojo, Y. Kohno, K. Yamaguchi et al., “Induction of Graves-like disease in mice by immunization with fibroblasts transfected with the thyrotropin receptor and a class II molecule,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 93, no. 20, pp. 11074–11079, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Kita, L. Ahmad, R. C. Marians et al., “Regulation and transfer of a murine model of thyrotropin receptor antibody mediated Graves' disease,” Endocrinology, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 1392–1398, 1999. View at Scopus
  27. A. K. Abbas, K. M. Murphy, and A. Sher, “Functional diversity of helper T lymphocytes,” Nature, vol. 383, no. 6603, pp. 787–793, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. Nanba, M. Watanabe, N. Inoue, and Y. Iwatani, “Increases of the Th1/Th2 cell ratio in severe Hashimoto's disease and in the proportion of Th17 cells in intractable Graves' disease,” Thyroid, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 495–501, 2009. View at Scopus
  29. A. Martin, G. Barbesino, and T. F. Davies, “T-cell receptors and autoimmune thyroid disease—signposts for T-cell-antigen driven diseases,” International Reviews of Immunology, vol. 18, no. 1-2, pp. 111–140, 1999. View at Scopus
  30. M. S. Horwitz, L. M. Bradley, J. Harbertson, T. Krahl, J. Lee, and N. Sarvetnick, “Diabetes induced by Coxsackie virus: initiation by bystander damage and not molecular mimicry,” Nature Medicine, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 781–785, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. N. Arata, T. Ando, P. Unger, and T. F. Davies, “By-stander activation in autoimmune thyroiditis: studies on experimental autoimmune thyroiditis in the GFP+ fluorescent mouse,” Clinical Immunology, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 108–117, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Y. Nagayama, “Graves' animal models of Graves' hyperthyroidism,” Thyroid, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 981–988, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Fountoulakis, G. Vartholomatos, N. Kolaitis, S. Frillingos, G. Philippou, and A. Tsatsoulis, “HLA-DR expressing peripheral T regulatory cells in newly diagnosed patients with different forms of autoimmune thyroid disease,” Thyroid, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1195–1200, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Y. Tomer, Y. Ban, E. Conception et al., “Common and unique susceptibility loci in graves and hashimoto diseases: results of whole-genome screening in a data set of 102 multiplex families,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 736–747, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. Villanueva, D. A. Greenberg, T. F. Davies, and Y. Tomer, “Sibling recurrence risk in autoimmune thyroid disease,” Thyroid, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 761–764, 2003. View at Scopus
  36. Y. Tomer and T. F. Davies, “Searching for the autoimmune thyroid disease susceptibility genes: from gene mapping to gene function,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 694–717, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Q. Y. Chen, W. Huang, and J. X. She, “HLA-DRB108, DRB103/DRB30101, and DRB30202 are susceptibility genes for Graves' disease in North American Caucasians, whereas DRB107 is protective,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 3182–3186, 1999.
  38. B. Vaidya, P. Kendall-Taylor, and S. H. S. Pearce, “The genetics of autoimmune thyroid disease,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 12, pp. 5385–5397, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Humphrey, J. Mosca, J. R. Baker Jr. et al., “Absence of retroviral sequences in Graves' disease,” The Lancet, vol. 337, no. 8732, pp. 17–18, 1991. View at Scopus
  40. D. Neumann-Haefelin, U. Fleps, R. Renne, and M. Schweizer, “Foamy viruses,” Intervirology, vol. 35, no. 1–4, pp. 196–207, 1993. View at Scopus
  41. Y. Tomer and T. F. Davies, “Infection, thyroid disease, and autoimmunity,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 107–120, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. N. Sonino, M. E. Girelli, M. Boscaro, F. Fallo, B. Busnardo, and G. A. Fava, “Life events in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease. A controlled study,” Acta Endocrinologica, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 293–296, 1993. View at Scopus
  43. A. W. C. Kung, “Life events, daily stresses and coping in patients with Graves' disease,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 303–308, 1995. View at Scopus
  44. A. Matos-Santos, E. L. Nobre, J. G. Costa et al., “Relationship between the number and impact of stressful life events and the onset of Graves' disease and toxic nodular goitre,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 15–19, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. X. Yin, R. Latif, Y. Tomer, and T. F. Davies, “Thyroid epigenetics: X chromosome inactivation in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1110, pp. 193–200, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. W. Kincade, K. L. Medina, G. Smithson, and D. C. Scott, “Pregnancy: a clue to normal regulation of B lymphopoiesis,” Immunology Today, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 539–544, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. A. P. Da Silva, “Sex hormones, glucocorticoids and autoimmunity: facts and hypotheses,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 6–16, 1995. View at Scopus
  48. L. Bartalena, E. Martino, C. Marcocci et al., “More on smoking habits and Graves' ophthalmopathy,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 733–737, 1989. View at Scopus
  49. M. F. Prummel and W. M. Wiersinga, “Smoking and risk of Graves' disease,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 269, no. 4, pp. 479–482, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. I. A. Holm, J. E. Manson, and K. B. Michels, “Smoking and other lifestyle factors and the risk of Graves' hyperthyroidism,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 165, no. 14, pp. 1606–1611, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. D. Glinoer, “The regulation of thyroid function during normal pregnancy: Importance of the iodine nutrition status,” Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 133–152, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. Ando and T. F. Davies, “Postpartum autoimmune thyroid disease: the potential role of fetal microchimerism,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 7, pp. 2965–2971, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. Jansson, P. A. Dahlberg, B. Winsa, O. Meirik, J. Safwenberg, and A. Karlsson, “The postpartum period constitutes an important risk for the development of clinical Graves' disease in young women,” Acta Endocrinologica, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 321–325, 1987. View at Scopus
  54. N. R. Rose, R. Bonita, and C. L. Burek, “Iodine: an environmental trigger of thyroiditis,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 1, no. 1-2, pp. 97–103, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C. A. Benbassat, S. Mechlis-Frish, M. Cohen, and I. Blum, “Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis type 2: a case report and review of the literature,” The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 320, no. 4, pp. 288–291, 2000. View at Scopus
  56. J. P. Walsh, L. C. Ward, V. Burke et al., “Small changes in thyroxine dosage do not produce measurable changes in hypothyroid symptoms, well-being, or quality of life: results of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 2624–2630, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. Srinivasappa, C. Garzelli, T. Onodera, U. Ray, and A. L. Notkins, “Virus-induced thyroiditis,” Endocrinology, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 563–566, 1988. View at Scopus
  58. K. Bendtzen, K. Buschard, M. Diamant, T. Horn, and M. Svenson, “Possible role of IL-1, TNF-α, and IL-6 in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroid disease,” Lymphokine Research, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 335–340, 1989. View at Scopus
  59. T. G. Strieder and M. F. Prummel, “Risk factors for and prevalence of thyroid disorders in a cross sectional study among healthy female relatives of patients with autoimmune thyroid disorder,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 396–401, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. Y. Tomer, G. Barbesino, D. A. Greenberg, E. Concepcion, and T. F. Davies, “Mapping the major susceptibility loci for familial Graves' and Hashimoto's diseases: evidence for genetic heterogeneity and gene interactions,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 84, no. 12, pp. 4656–4664, 1999. View at Scopus
  61. H. Tamai, N. Ohsako, and K. Takeno, “Changes in thyroid function in euthyroid subjects with a family history of Graves' disease: a follow-up study of 69 patients,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1123–1127, 1980. View at Scopus
  62. T. H. Brix, K. O. Kyvik, and L. Hegedüs, “A population-based study of chronic autoimmune hypothyroidism in Danish twins,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 536–539, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. Y. Tomer and T. F. Davies, “Infection, thyroid disease and autoimmunity,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 107–120, 1993.
  64. A. P. Weetman, R. C. Smallridge, T. B. Nutman, and K. D. Burman, “Persistent thyroid autoimmunity after subacute thyroiditis,” Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Immunology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 1987. View at Scopus
  65. R. Raghupathy, “Th1-type immunity is incompatible with successful pregnancy,” Immunology Today, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 478–482, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. T. H. Brix, G. P. Knudsen, M. Kristiansen, K. O. Kyvik, K. H. Orstavik, and L. Hegedüs, “High frequency of skewed X-chromosome inactivation in females with autoimmune thyroid disease: a possible explanation for the female predisposition to thyroid autoimmunity,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 5949–5953, 2005.
  67. T. F. Davies, “The thyroid immunology of the postpartum period,” Thyroid, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 675–684, 1999. View at Scopus
  68. A. P. Weetman, “The immunology of pregnancy,” Thyroid, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 643–646, 1999. View at Scopus
  69. S. Othman, D. I. W. Phillips, A. B. Parkes et al., “A long-term follow-up of postpartum thyroiditis,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 559–564, 1990. View at Scopus
  70. A. M. Gbadebo and T. M. Oyesanya, “Assessment of iodine deficiency and goitre incidence in parts of Yewa area of Ogun state, Southwestern Nigeria,” Environmental Geochemistry and Health, vol. 27, no. 5-6, pp. 491–499, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. F. Pacini, T. Vorontsova, L. Molinaro et al., “Prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in children and adolescents from Belarus exposed to the Chernobyl radioactive fallout,” The Lancet, vol. 352, no. 9130, pp. 763–766, 1998. View at Scopus
  72. G. Huber, J. Staub, C. Meier et al., “Prospective study of the spontaneous course of subclinical hypothyroidism: prognostic value of thyrotropin, thyroid reserve, and thyroid antibodies,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 3221–3226, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. H. Völzke, A. Werner, H. Wallaschofski et al., “Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with autoimmune thyroid disease,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 8, pp. 4587–4592, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. K. V. Prasad and B. S. Prabhakar, “Apoptosis and autoimmune disorders,” Autoimmunity, vol. 36, no. 6-7, pp. 323–330, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. S. M. McLachlan and B. Rapoport, “The molecular biology of thyroid peroxidase: cloning, expression and role as autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid disease,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 192–206, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. McIntosh, P. Watson, and A. Weetman, “Somatic hypermutation in autoimmune thyroid disease,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 162, pp. 219–231, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. R. Njemini, I. Meyers, C. Demanet, J. Smitz, M. Sosso, and T. Mets, “The prevalence of autoantibodies in an elderly sub-Saharan African population,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 99–106, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. L. M. Silva, J. Chavez, M. H. B. Canalli, and C. R. Zanetti, “Determination of IgG subclasses and avidity of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism—a comparison with patients with overt hypothyroidism,” Hormone Research, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 118–124, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. I. Hawa, A. Picardi, F. Costanza et al., “Frequency of diabetes and thyroid autoantibodies in patients with autoimmune endocrine disease from Cameroon,” Clinical Immunology, vol. 118, no. 2-3, pp. 229–232, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. Y. Malthiery and S. Lissitzky, “Primary structure of human thyroglobulin deduced from the sequence of its 8448-base complementary DNA,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 165, no. 3, pp. 491–498, 1987. View at Scopus
  81. G. Carayanniotis and V. P. Rao, “Searching for pathogenic epitopes in thyroglobulin: parameters and caveats,” Immunology Today, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 83–88, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. K. S. Collison, J. P. Banga, P. S. Barnett, G. C. Huang, and A. M. McGregor, “Autoantibody stimulation of the human thyrotropin receptor: regulation of adenylate cyclase activity, thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase mRNA levels in primary cultures of Graves' thyroid tissue,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 61–65, 1991. View at Scopus
  83. K. Boelaert and J. A. Franklyn, “Thyroid hormone in health and disease,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 187, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. B. S. Prabhakar, J. Fan, and G. S. Seetharamaiah, “Thyrotropin-receptor-mediated diseases: a paradigm for receptor autoimmunity,” Immunology Today, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 437–442, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. G. Stassi and R. de Maria, “Autoimmune thyroid disease: new models of cell death in autoimmunity,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 195–204, 2002. View at Scopus
  86. R. C. Smallridge, “Postpartum thyroid dysfunction: a frequently undiagnosed endocrine disorder,” Endocrinologist, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 44–50, 1996. View at Scopus
  87. M. Nilsson, J. Husmark, U. Björkman, and L. E. Ericson, “Cytokines and thyroid epithelial integrity: Interleukin-1α induces dissociation of the junctional complex and paracellular leakage in filter-cultured human thyrocytes,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 945–952, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. A. P. Weetman, “Fortnightly review. Hypothyroidism: screening and subclinical disease,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 314, no. 7088, pp. 1175–1178, 1997. View at Scopus
  89. A. P. Weetman, “Endocrinology,” in Handbook of HLA and Disease, R. I. Lechler and A. Warrens, Eds., Academic Press, London, UK, 2nd edition, 2000.
  90. P. J. Simons, F. G. A. Delemarre, and H. A. Drexhage, “Antigen-presenting dendritic cells as regulators of the growth of thyrocytes: a role of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6,” Endocrinology, vol. 139, no. 7, pp. 3148–3156, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J. R. Baker Jr. and C. K. Fosso, “Immunological aspects of cancers arising from thyroid follicular cells,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 729–746, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. F. Matsuzuka, A. Miyauchi, S. Katayama et al., “Clinical aspects of primary thyroid lymphoma: diagnosis and treatment based on our experience of 119 cases,” Thyroid, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 93–99, 1993. View at Scopus
  93. C. Giani, P. Fierabracci, R. Bonacci et al., “Relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disease: relevance of autoimmune thyroid disorders in breast malignancy,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 990–994, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. R. Balaji, B. D. Pragna, K. A. Veerendra, and R. V. Seshadri, “Renal function markers and thyroid hormone status in undialyzed chronic kidney disease,” Al Ameen Journal of Medical Science, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 70–74, 2013.
  95. E. M. Kaptein, “Thyroid function in renal failure,” Contributions to Nephrology, vol. 50, pp. 64–72, 1986. View at Scopus
  96. A. I. Katz and M. D. Lindheimer, “Actions of hormones on the kidney,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 39, pp. 97–133, 1977. View at Scopus