ISRN Entomology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Composition, Repellent, and Insecticidal Activities of Two South American Plants against the Stored Grain Pests Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Thu, 20 Feb 2014 06:58:22 +0000 As part of a screening program to evaluate the biological activity of indigenous plants, we report the composition and the bioactivity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Té de Burro Aloysia polystachya [(Griseb.) Moldenke] and Lemon Verbena Aloysia citriodora [Palau] against two of the most widespread secondary pests of stored products, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum [Herbst] and the confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum [Jacqueline du Val]. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the EOs led the identification of their major constituents and their relative proportions. EO of A. citriodora showed the highest repellent activity against both beetles (>70%). On the other hand, both plants showed fumigant toxicity only against T. confusum, without significant differences between them (LC50 values of 5.92 and 5.53 mg/L air for A. polystachya and A. citriodora, resp.). For contact toxicity (topical applications) the EO of A. polystachya was more effective (LD50 = 7.35 μg/insect) than the EO of A. citriodora (LD50 = 13.8 μg/insect) only against T. castaneum. On the other hand, T. confusum was not susceptible by contact to any of these EOs. These results provide important tools for the development of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program. Verónica Benzi, Natalia Stefanazzi, Ana Paula Murray, Jorge O. Werdin González, and Adriana Ferrero Copyright © 2014 Verónica Benzi et al. All rights reserved. Paradoxes of Poweshiek Skipperling (Oarisma poweshiek) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae): Abundance Patterns and Management of a Highly Imperiled Prairie Species Sun, 19 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Although Oarisma poweshiek sometimes occurred in localized abundance, its known range is centered on the highly decimated northern tallgrass prairie of North America. To aid its conservation, we analyze surveys from 1988 to 1997 of populations no longer being found. While we recorded 2403 individuals at 20 sites, five sites had 87% of individuals, while 12 sites had only 2% of individuals. Most surveys during O. poweshiek flight had zero individuals recorded. In peak vegetative characteristics for O. poweshiek, fire management had the highest mean abundance but the lowest median abundance and lowest percent occurrence compared to idling and haying. Mean abundance was by far the lowest in the first year postfire compared to longer since fire. Median abundance and percent unit surveys where O. poweshiek was found indicated higher abundances the longer since fire. Although this skipper occasionally exhibited super-recoveries after fire, the median result in fire-managed occupied sites was zero. In a few years, abundance appeared synchronized across many sites, either low (1993, 1997) or high (1994-1995). It is only through a constant focus on avoiding the worst-case scenario that the rare best-case scenario of long-term population persistence appears possible for O. poweshiek. Ann B. Swengel and Scott R. Swengel Copyright © 2014 Ann B. Swengel and Scott R. Swengel. All rights reserved. Potential Application of Pheromones in Monitoring, Mating Disruption, and Control of Click Beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) Sun, 12 Jan 2014 15:56:19 +0000 Wireworms, the larvae stage of click beetles (family, Elateridae), are serious soil dwelling pests of small grain, corn, sugar beet, and potato crops globally. Since the 1950s, conventional insecticides such as lindane provided effective and inexpensive protection from wireworms, and little integrated pest management research (IPM) was conducted. The removal of these products from the agricultural market, particularly Lindane, has resulted in increasing levels of wireworm damage to small grain, corn, and potato crops. The wireworm damage has become an increasing problem for growers, so the demand for a meaningful risk assessment and useful methods to restrict damage is increasing. However, due to the cryptic habitat of the wireworms, pest control is very difficult and leads to unsatisfying results. The prospective appropriateness of sex pheromone traps for employing management strategies against wireworm’s populations was first suggested with experimentation in Hungary and Italy. Simultaneously, considerable work has been done on the identification and use of pheromone traps to monitor population of click beetles. The work has been mostly done in European and former Soviet Union countries. For this paper, we reviewed what work has been done in monitoring the click beetle which was considered as pests and how the pheromones can be used in IPM to monitor and control wireworms/click beetles. Also, the possibilities of using the pheromone-baited traps for mating disruption and control tested in the fields were summarized. Gadi V. P. Reddy and Khanobporn Tangtrakulwanich Copyright © 2014 Gadi V. P. Reddy and Khanobporn Tangtrakulwanich. All rights reserved. Discrete Modes of Life Cycle in Velarifictorus micado Species Complex (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) Wed, 18 Dec 2013 17:09:57 +0000 Different modes of climatic adaptation often lead to a split in reproductive cohesion and stimulate speciation between populations with different patterns of life cycle. We here examined egg development and photoperiodic adaptations in the nymphal development of Velarifictorus micado. We defined fast hatching populations as nymphal diapause and slow hatching populations as egg diapause. The nymphs were reared under two photoperiods, LD 16 : 8 and LD 12 : 12 at 27.5°C, and the mean days of nymphal development were compared. The results indicate that the nymphal diapause populations showed slower nymphal development under LD 12 : 12 than under LD 16 : 8, and this retardation increased with the increase of original latitude. The egg diapause populations showed slower nymphal development under LD 16 : 8 than under LD 12 : 12. These features help synchronizing their overwintering stages. Gene flow from the opposite forms may disturb this synchronization mechanism, and therefore natural selection should favor displacement of the two forms. This could be an incipient climatic isolation mechanism of reproductive stage. Zhuqing He and Makio Takeda Copyright © 2013 Zhuqing He and Makio Takeda. All rights reserved. Larvicidal, Ovicidal, and Repellent Activities of Marine Sponge Cliona celata (Grant) Extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) Wed, 27 Nov 2013 17:00:30 +0000 Solvent extracts of marine sponge Cliona celata (Grant) were screened for larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent properties against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say and dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. Larvicidal and ovicidal activities of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts were tested in four different concentrations ranging as 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 ppm. Among the three solvent extracts of C. celata, methanol extract showed the highest larvicidal activity at 500 ppm against both mosquito species. The LC50 and LC90 values of C. celata methanol extract were recorded as 95.63 and 242.16 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus larvae and 158.40 and 780.16 ppm against A. aegypti larvae, respectively. Ovicidal activity was high in methanol extract, in which 100% ovicidal activity was recorded in C. quinquefasciatus, and 72% ovicidal activity was recorded in A. aegypti at 500 ppm. The hexane extract was found to be the most effective protectant against the adult mosquitoes of both species. The mean protection time recorded in hexane extract was up to 273 and 165 min at 5 mg/cm2 dosage against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti, respectively. Considering these bioactivities, C. celata could be used to obtain some novel pesticidal molecules. Appadurai Daniel Reegan, Arokia Valan Kinsalin, Michael Gabriel Paulraj, and Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu Copyright © 2013 Appadurai Daniel Reegan et al. All rights reserved. Trail following Learning by Young Myrmica rubra Workers (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Thu, 03 Oct 2013 09:53:22 +0000 Ants use chemical trails, laid down on the ground, for recruiting congeners and helping them to return to the nest. The present work shows that young ants, less than one year old, though obviously reacting to the trail pheromone, are unable to efficiently follow a trail. These young ants begin to better walk along a trail when being in presence of trail following older congeners. Later on, they can by themselves rather efficiently follow a trail. Queens removed from their nest correctly move along a trail. The knowledge of the trail pheromone is thus native, while the trail following behavior is both partly native and partly learned. The latter learning is rapid and may be induced and/or enhanced by older trail following nestmates. Marie-Claire Cammaerts Copyright © 2013 Marie-Claire Cammaerts. All rights reserved. Exploring Flat Faced Longhorn Beetles (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) from the Reserve Forests of Dooars, West Bengal, India Tue, 17 Sep 2013 08:34:18 +0000 The present study deals with 29 lamiid species under 21 genera of Dooars, West Bengal, India. These include 4 newly recorded species, namely, Macrochenus isabellinus Aurivillius, Aesopida malasiaca Thomson, Pterolophia (Hylobrotus) lateralis Gahan and Nupserha quadrioculata (Thunberg) from India while 16 others (marked by ●) from the state. Sumana Saha, Hüseyin Özdikmen, Manish Kanti Biswas, and Dinendra Raychaudhuri Copyright © 2013 Sumana Saha et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Prey Density on Life Table Parameters of Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Fed on Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) under Laboratory Conditions Wed, 10 Jul 2013 09:05:45 +0000 Life table gives the most comprehensive explanation of the survivorship, development, and reproduction of a population. The life table parameters of ladybeetle, Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), on different densities (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100) of third instar nymphs of Aphis gossypii were studied in a growth chamber (°C, % RH, and a photoperiod of 16L: 8D h). The adult preovipositional period and the total preovipositional period of female H. variegata were reduced as the prey density increased. The oviposition period was longer when prey density increased. Female longevity also increased significantly with increasing prey density. Fecundity was dependent on prey density. The lowest fecundity was obtained at density of 20 prey () and the highest at density of 100 ( eggs). Intrinsic rate of increase was dependent on prey density and ranged from to  d−1 (female/female/day) with increasing prey density. Net reproductive rate and gross reproductive rate were also increased with increasing prey density. The peak reproductive values were dependent on prey density. However, mean generation time decreased as prey density increased. It was concluded that the increase in the density of A. gossypii nymphs had positive and significant effects on reproductive parameters of H. variegata. Soodeh Davoodi Dehkordi, Ahad Sahragard, and Jalil Hajizadeh Copyright © 2013 Soodeh Davoodi Dehkordi et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Biological Attributes of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations from India Thu, 13 Jun 2013 16:07:52 +0000 Understanding the population dynamics of mosquito populations through life table analysis and insecticide susceptibility is important to assess the likely impact of vector control strategies as well as to aid the design of novel interventions. Variation in the life tables and other biological data was compared for two populations of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 from geographically isolated regions, Gorakhpur and Pune from India. Under a standardized rearing regime and constant laboratory conditions, mosquitoes were reared and biological attributes of these populations were compared. Development and survival of immature and adult stages of Culex quinquefasciatus were found significantly different in Gorakhpur and Pune populations. Principal component analysis of morphological data revealed that the two populations form significantly different clusters which can be differentiated from each other based on siphon, saddle, anal gills, and pecten teeth related variables. Insecticide susceptibility results suggest that the larvae from both areas were more susceptible to deltamethrin as compared to DDT and malathion. The current study provides baseline information on survivorship, morphological variation and insecticide susceptibility of Culex quinquefasciatus. The results obtained in this study suggest that different geographical areas with contrasting habitats have significant influence on survival and reproductive strategies of Culex quinquefasciatus. Mangesh D. Gokhale, Mandar S. Paingankar, and Sachin D. Dhaigude Copyright © 2013 Mangesh D. Gokhale et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Characterization of the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northern Italy Wed, 27 Mar 2013 15:44:40 +0000 Polymorphism of the gene COI encoding cytochrome C oxidase subunit I and of the rRNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) was measured in Aedes albopictus collected in three locations in Piedmont region and one location in Liguria region in Italy. According to our data, besides the middle part of the COI gene usually used for analysis, there are also SNPs in the 5′ half of the gene, which can provide additional information about the polymorphism of A. albopictus populations. Based on COI gene, three various mitochondrial haplotypes were identified in A. albopictus from four north Italian sampling sites. Different sources of introductions can be considered. The variability between COI sequences of the north Italian A. albopictus is 0.001 while the variability between them based on the pairwise analysis of ITS2 sequences is 10 time more—0.011. For the first time, a 4% divergence between the populations of A. albopictus of tropical and subtropical origins was found on the basis of analyzing the ITS2. A relatively high level of variability of ITS2 between tropical and subtropical populations can be used to develop new markers for phylogenetic studies. No individuals with mitochondrial and nuclear haplotypes specific to tropical populations were found in the four north Italian sampling sites. Elena Shaikevich and Asghar Talbalaghi Copyright © 2013 Elena Shaikevich and Asghar Talbalaghi. All rights reserved. New Species of Exomalopsis and Its Associated Cleptoparasite Nomada from Colombia with Description of the Nest (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila: Apidae) Thu, 14 Mar 2013 11:59:41 +0000 We describe two new species of bees from Colombia; one is a species of Exomalopsis found nesting in the city of Medellin, Colombia, (the host) and its cleptoparasitic bee, a species of the genus Nomada. In addition, we provide information on the nest architecture of the new species and provide data on occupancy by both the host bee and its cleptoparasite. We present an updated list of the species of Exomalopsis and Nomada of Colombia and taxonomic keys to the species of Exomalopsis. Rita I. Velez-Ruiz and Allan H. Smith-Pardo Copyright © 2013 Rita I. Velez-Ruiz and Allan H. Smith-Pardo. All rights reserved. Anatomic Morphometrics of the “Senene” Tettigoniid Ruspolia differens Serville (Orthoptera: Conocephalidae) from North-West Tanzania Mon, 28 Jan 2013 11:10:42 +0000 The morphometrics of Ruspolia differens (order: Orthoptera; family: Conocephalidae), the longhorn grasshopper that is widely known as senene by its Kiswahili name, was largely unclear although the species serves broadly as a delicacy relish snack. In this study, the anatomic morphometrics of this insect was critically inferred based on the samples that were collected from North-west Tanzania in April-May 2009. R. differens was revealed to have a number of unique anatomic features that can essentially serve in its diagnosis. These include the paired male metathoracic flaps, finger-like prosternal protuberances, hind femoral spines, subequal tibial black markings, and an obvious male biased antennal dimorphism. Nicodemus D. Matojo and Jacob G. Yarro Copyright © 2013 Nicodemus D. Matojo and Jacob G. Yarro. All rights reserved. Filariasis Control in Coastal Nigeria: Predictive Significance of Baseline Entomological Indices of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) Thu, 10 Jan 2013 08:21:04 +0000 This work aimed at collecting filariasis transmission data of Anopheles gambiae to be used in predicting future trends in filariasis transmission and control programme outcomes. Collection of the mosquitoes was made by human landing catch and light trap methods. In all, 5,813 females were caught from September 2005 to August 2006. Mosquito population started to expand at the onset of the rains. The highest density was found after peak temperature. The A. gambiae s.l. biting peaked around midnight; 39.7% were parous and 0.3% were infective. The highest percentage of parous females caught was near midnight, ranging between 42.0% and 47.5% from 22.00 to 03.00 hours. Biting rate in the rainy season was 2.6 times higher than it in the dry season. Transmission potential was 3.6 times higher during the rains than during the dry season. The percentage infectivity was relatively high (13.2%) in June, corresponding to 8.8 infective bites per person per month. All infective A. gambiae, were caught between 22.00 and 03.00 hours. The average load of L3 larvae per infective A. gambiae was 1.4 L3/mosquito. The monthly transmission potential calculated for each month indicated that transmission was ongoing for most of the months of the year, especially in the rainy season. Emmanuel C. Uttah, Dominic Ibe, and Gloria N. Wokem Copyright © 2013 Emmanuel C. Uttah et al. All rights reserved. Vouchering of Forensically Important Fly Specimens by Nondestructive DNA Extraction Wed, 19 Dec 2012 11:39:44 +0000 DNA extraction frequently requires destruction of whole samples. However, when the sample is very rare or has taxonomic importance, nondestructive DNA extraction is required for preservation of voucher specimens. In the case of arthropod specimens, minor anatomical structures such as a single leg or a single wing are often sacrificed instead of the whole body for DNA extraction. In an attempt to save the entire anatomical structure of specimens, several authors tried to brew the whole specimen in a lysis buffer and to extract DNA from the “soup.” We applied this nondestructive DNA extraction technique to a forensically important blowfly species, Phaenicia sericata. With nondestructive DNA extraction, a satisfactory quantity and quality of DNA for PCR amplification was obtained with only minimal anatomical disruptions that do not alter the morphologic identification. This nondestructive method may be applicable to DNA extraction of rare samples as well as vouchering of regular fly samples. Seong Yoon Kim, Seong Hwan Park, Huguo Piao, Ukhee Chung, Kwang Soo Ko, and Juck-Joon Hwang Copyright © 2013 Seong Yoon Kim et al. All rights reserved.