About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
ISRN Gastroenterology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 463689, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/463689
Review Article

Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases: Review and Update

Department of Medicine, Nassau University Medical Center, 2201 Hempstead Turnpike, East Meadow, NY 11554, USA

Received 11 April 2012; Accepted 13 May 2012

Academic Editors: H. Shimoda and C. Sperti

Copyright © 2012 Mahreema Jawairia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. M. Hurrell, R. M. Genta, and S. D. Melton, “Histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic conditions in the gastrointestinal tract,” Advances in Anatomic Pathology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 335–348, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. T. Lwin, S. D. Melton, and R. M. Genta, “Eosinophilic gastritis: histopathological characterization and quantification of the normal gastric eosinophil content,” Modern Pathology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 556–563, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Khan and S. R. Orenstein, “Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: epidemiology, diagnosis and management,” Pediatric Drugs, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 563–570, 2002. View at Scopus
  4. C. A. Liacouras, W. J. Wenner, K. Brown, and E. Ruchelli, “Primary eosinophilic esophagitis in children: successful treatment with oral corticosteroids,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 380–385, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. V. L. Fox, S. Nurko, and G. T. Furuta, “Eosinophilic esophagitis: it's not just kid's stuff,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 260–270, 2002. View at Scopus
  6. M. E. Rothenberg, “Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID),” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 11–29, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Blanchard, N. Wang, K. F. Stringer et al., “Eotaxin-3 and a uniquely conserved gene-expression profile in eosinophilic esophagitis,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 536–547, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. S. Foster, S. P. Hogan, A. J. Ramsay, K. I. Matthaei, and I. G. Young, “Interleukin 5 deficiency abolishes eosinophilia, airways hyperreactivity, and lung damage in a mouse asthma model,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 183, no. 1, pp. 195–201, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. M. Yan and E. A. Shaffer, “Primary eosinophilic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract,” Gut, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 721–732, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. R. Guajardo, L. M. Plotnick, J. M. Fende, M. H. Collins, P. E. Putnam, and M. E. Rothenberg, “Eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disorders: a world-wide-web based registry,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 141, no. 4, pp. 576–581, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. H. Lee, P. L. Rhee, J. J. Kim et al., “The role of mucosal biopsy in the diagnosis of chronic diarrhea: value of multiple biopsies when colonoscopic finding is normal or nonspecific,” The Korean journal of internal medicine, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 182–187, 1997. View at Scopus
  12. A. Moon and R. E. Kleinman, “Allergic gastroenteropathy in children,” Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 5–12, 1995. View at Scopus
  13. G. Torpier, J. F. Colombel, C. Mathieu-Chandelier et al., “Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: ultrastructural evidence for a selective release of eosinophil major basic protein,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 404–408, 1988. View at Scopus
  14. M. P. Sherman and K. L. Cox, “Neonatal eosinophilic colitis,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 587–589, 1982. View at Scopus
  15. G. T. Furuta, “Eosinophils in the esophagus: acid is not the only cause,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 468–471, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. M. Dvorak, “Ultrastructural evidence for release of major basic protein-containing crystalline cores of eosinophil granules in vivo: cytotoxic potential in Crohn's disease,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 460–462, 1980. View at Scopus
  17. H. S. Winter, J. L. Madara, R. J. Stafford, R. J. Grand, J. E. Quinlan, and H. Goldman, “Intraepithelial eosinophils: a new diagnostic criterion for reflux esophagitis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 818–823, 1982. View at Scopus
  18. S. P. Hogan, A. Mishra, E. B. Brandt et al., “A pathological function for eotaxin and eosinophils in eosinophilic gastrointestinal inflammation,” Nature Immunology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 353–360, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. J. Mulder and C. J. Justinich, “Understanding eosinophilic esophagitis: the cellular and molecular mechanisms of an emerging disease,” Mucosal Immunology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 139–147, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Frieri, “Symposium cont. Asthma concepts in the new millennium: update in asthma pathophysiology,” Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 83–88, 2005. View at Scopus
  21. M. Frieri, “Inflammatory issues in allergic rhinitis and asthma,” Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 163–169, 2005. View at Scopus
  22. A. Mishra, S. P. Hogan, E. B. Brandt, and M. E. Rothenberg, “An etiological role for aeroallergens and eosinophils in experimental esophagitis,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 83–90, 2001. View at Scopus
  23. J. Mattes, M. Yang, S. Mahalingam et al., “Intrinsic defect in T cell production of interleukin (IL)-13 in the absence of both IL-5 and eotaxin precludes the development of eosinophilia and airways hyperreactivity in experimental asthma,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 195, no. 11, pp. 1433–1444, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. A. Garcia-Zepeda, M. E. Rothenberg, R. T. Ownbey, J. Celestin, P. Leder, and A. D. Luster, “Human eotaxin is a specific chemoattractant for eosinophil cells and provides a new mechanism to explain tissue eosinophilia,” Nature Medicine, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 449–456, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Kato, G. M. Kephart, N. J. Talley et al., “Eosinophil infiltration and degranulation in normal human tissue,” Anatomical Record, vol. 252, no. 3, pp. 418–425, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Mishra, S. P. Hogan, J. J. Lee, P. S. Foster, and M. E. Rothenberg, “Fundamental signals that regulate eosinophil homing to the gastrointestinal tract,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 103, no. 12, pp. 1719–1727, 1999. View at Scopus
  27. M. E. Rothenberg, A. Mishra, E. B. Brandt, and S. P. Hogan, “Gastrointestinal eosinophils,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 179, pp. 139–155, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. V. Walsh, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman et al., “Allergic esophagitis in children: a clinicopathological entity,” American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 390–396, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. R. Orenstein, T. M. Shalaby, C. di Lorenzo, P. E. Putnam, L. Sigurdsson, and S. A. Kocoshis, “The spectrum of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis beyond infancy: a clinical series of 30 children,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 1422–1430, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. J. Kelly, “Eosinophilic gastroenteritis,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. S28–S35, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. N. J. Talley, R. G. Shorter, S. F. Phillips, and A. R. Zinsmeister, “Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: a clinicopathological study of patients with disease of the mucosa, muscle layer, and subserosal tissues,” Gut, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 54–58, 1990. View at Scopus
  32. V. L. Fox, “Pediatric endoscopy,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America, vol. 10, pp. 175–194, 2000.
  33. A. Keshavarzian, S. H. Saverymuttu, P. C. Tai et al., “Activated eosinophils in familial eosinophilic gastroenteritis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 1041–1049, 1985. View at Scopus
  34. C. Stellato, M. E. Brummet, J. R. Plitt et al., “Cutting edge: expression of the C-C chemokine receptor CCR3 in human airway epithelial cells,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 166, no. 3, pp. 1457–1461, 2001. View at Scopus
  35. M. E. Rothenberg, A. Mishra, M. H. Collins, and P. E. Putnam, “Pathogenesis and clinical features of eosinophilic esophagitis,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 891–894, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. R. Guajardo and M. E. Rothenberg, “Eosinophilic esophagitis, gastroenteritis, gastroenterocolitis, and colitis,” in Food Allergy: Adverse Reactions to Foods and Additives, D. D. Metcalfe, H. A. Sampson, and R. A. Simon, Eds., pp. 217–226, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, Mass, USA, 3rd edition, 2003.
  37. M. Frieri and B. Kettlhut, “Food allergy perception and reality,” in Food Hypersensitivity and Adverse Reactions: A Practical Guide for Diagnosis and Management, 1999.
  38. G. Puglisi and M. Frieri, “Update on hidden food allergens and food labeling,” Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 634–639, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. E. Rothenberg, A. Mishra, E. B. Brandt, and S. P. Hogan, “Gastrointestinal eosinophils in health and disease,” Advances in Immunology, vol. 78, pp. 291–328, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. A. Sampson, “Food allergy. Part 1: immunopathogenesis and clinical disorders,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 103, no. 5, pp. 717–728, 1999. View at Scopus
  41. A. L. Wardlaw, “Molecular basis for selective eosinophil trafficking in asthma: a multistep paradigm,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 917–926, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. A. Liacouras, J. M. Spergel, E. Ruchelli et al., “Eosinophilic esophagitis: a 10-year experience in 381 children,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 1198–1206, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. F. Y. Wang, S. K. Gupta, and J. F. Fitzgerald, “Is there a seasonal variation in the incidence or intensity of allergic eosinophilic esophagitis in newly diagnosed children?” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 451–453, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. I. Fogg, E. Ruchelli, and J. M. Spergel, “Pollen and eosinophilic esophagitis,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 796–797, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. Justinich, A. Katz, C. Gurbindo et al., “Elemental diet improves steroid-dependent eosinophilic gastroenteritis and reverses growth failure,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 81–85, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. M. Spergel, T. Andrews, T. F. Brown-Whitehorn, J. L. Beausoleil, and C. A. Liacouras, “Treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis with specific food elimination diet directed by a combination of skin prick and patch tests,” Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 336–343, 2005. View at Scopus
  47. S. M. Hill and P. J. Milla, “Colitis caused by food allergy in infants,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 132–133, 1990. View at Scopus
  48. W. A. Faubion Jr., J. Perrault, L. J. Burgart, N. N. Zein, M. Clawson, and D. K. Freese, “Treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis with inhaled corticosteroids,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 90–93, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. L. Stein, M. H. Collins, J. M. Villanueva et al., “Anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab) therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 118, no. 6, pp. 1312–1319, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. E. T. Schaefer, J. F. Fitzgerald, J. P. Molleston et al., “Comparison of oral prednisone and topical fluticasone in the treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis: a randomized trial in children,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 165–173, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. B. Samuelsson, “Leukotrienes: mediators of immediate hypersensitivity reactions and inflammation,” Science, vol. 220, no. 4597, pp. 568–575, 1983. View at Scopus
  52. A. Sampson and S. Holgate, “Leukotriene modifiers in the treatment of asthma,” British Medical Journal, vol. 316, no. 7140, pp. 1257–1258, 1998. View at Scopus
  53. J. W. Dobbins, D. G. Sheahan, and J. Behar, “Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with esophageal involvement,” Gastroenterology, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 1312–1316, 1977. View at Scopus
  54. H. Goldman and R. Proujansky, “Allergic proctitis and gastroenteritis in children. Clinical and mucosal biopsy features in 53 cases,” American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 75–86, 1986. View at Scopus
  55. British National Formulary 3.3, “Montelukast and zafirlukast in asthma,” Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin, vol. 36, pp. 65–69, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. D. W. P. Hay, “Pharmacology of leukotriene receptor antagonists: more than inhibitors of bronchoconstriction,” Chest, vol. 111, 2, pp. 35–45, 1997. View at Scopus
  57. S. E. A. Attwood, C. J. Lewis, C. S. Bronder, C. D. Morris, G. R. Armstrong, and J. Whittam, “Eosinophilic oesophagitis: a novel treatment using Montelukast,” Gut, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 181–185, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. K. Gupta, M. Peters-Golden, J. F. Fitzgerald et al., “Cysteinyl leukotriene levels in esophageal mucosal biopsies of children with eosinophilic inflammation: are they all the same?” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 101, no. 5, pp. 1125–1128, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. H. F. Rosenberg, S. Phipps, and P. S. Foster, “Eosinophil trafficking in allergy and asthma,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 1303–1310, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. Mishra, S. P. Hogan, E. B. Brandt, and M. E. Rothenberg, “IL-5 promotes eosinophil trafficking to the esophagus,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 168, no. 5, pp. 2464–2469, 2002. View at Scopus
  61. A. B. Kay and A. D. Klion, “Anti-interleukin-5 therapy for asthma and hypereosinophilic syndrome,” Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 645–666, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. Prussin, S. P. James, M. M. Huber, A. D. Klion, and D. D. Metcalfe, “Pilot study of anti-IL-5 in eosinophilic gastroenteritis,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 111, p. 827, 2003.
  63. Y. J. Kim, C. Prussin, B. Martin et al., “Rebound eosinophilia after treatment of hypereosinophilic syndrome and eosinophilic gastroenteritis with monoclonal anti-IL-5 antibody SCH55700,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 114, no. 6, pp. 1449–1455, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. K. Garrett, S. C. Jameson, B. Thomson et al., “Anti-interleukin-5 (mepolizumab) therapy for hypereosinophilic syndromes,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 115–119, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. L. Stein, J. M. Villanueva, B. K. Buckmeier et al., “Anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab) therapy reduces eosinophil activation ex vivo and increases IL-5 and IL-5 receptor levels,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 121, no. 6, pp. 1473–1483, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. Straumann, M. Bauer, B. Fischer, K. Blaser, and H. U. Simon, “Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis is associated with a TH2-type allergic inflammatory response,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 954–961, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. Kirsch, R. Bokhary, M. A. Marcon, and E. Cutz, “Activated mucosal mast cells differentiate eosinophilic (allergic) esophagitis from gastroesophageal reflux disease,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 20–26, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. Holgate, T. Casale, S. Wenzel, J. Bousquet, Y. Deniz, and C. Reisner, “The anti-inflammatory effects of omalizumab confirm the central role of IgE in allergic inflammation,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 459–465, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. Foroughi, B. Foster, N. Kim et al., “Anti-IgE treatment of eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disorders,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 594–601, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. G. Hochhaus, L. Brookman, H. Fox et al., “Pharmacodynamics of omalizumab: implications for optimised dosing strategies and clinical efficacy in the treatment of allergic asthma,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 491–498, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. A. Berry, B. Hargadon, M. Shelley et al., “Evidence of a role of tumor necrosis factor α in refractory asthma,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 354, no. 7, pp. 697–708, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. Straumann, S. Conus, H. Kita et al., et al., “Mepolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to IL-5, for severe eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled double blind trial,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 121, p. S44, 2008.