About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
ISRN Gastroenterology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 607149, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/607149
Review Article

Special Considerations for Endoscopists on PEG Indications in Older Patients

Geriatric Surgery Unit, Geriatric Department, Padova University and General Hospital, Via Giustiniani 1, 35100 Padova, Italy

Received 11 October 2012; Accepted 31 October 2012

Academic Editors: Y. Chao and A. Weimann

Copyright © 2012 Fabrizio Cardin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. J. Simmonds, “Ethical issues in nutrition support: a view from the coalface,” Frontline Gastroenterology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 7–12, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. S. A. McClave and M. H. Delegge, “Predicting life expectancy before percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement: a lesson in futility or an exercise of injustice?” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 228–230, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. H. Delegge, S. A. Mc Clave, J. A. Di Sario, et al., “Ethical and medicolegal aspect of PEG-tube placamento and provision of artificial ntritional therapy,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 952–959, 2005.
  4. S. G. Parker and S. Conroy, “Poor inpatient care for older people,” British Medical Journal, vol. 342, article d373, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. Lothian and I. Philp, “Care of older people: maintaining the dignity and autonomy of older people in the healthcare setting,” British Medical Journal, vol. 322, no. 7287, pp. 668–670, 2001. View at Scopus
  6. L. D. Scott, “The PEG “Consult” ethics in gastroenterology,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 740–743, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. B. Winter and S. Cohen, “ABC of intensive care: withdrawal of treatment,” British Medical Journal, vol. 319, no. 7205, pp. 306–308, 1999. View at Scopus
  8. A. M. The, R. Pasman, B. Onwuteaka-Philipsen, M. Ribbe, and G. Van der Wal, “Withholding the artificial administration of fluids and food from elderly patients with dementia: ethnographic study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 325, no. 7376, pp. 1326–1329, 2002. View at Scopus
  9. S. Mayor, “Seriously ill elderly patients are subjected to futile endoscopies,” British Medical Journal, vol. 329, no. 7471, pp. 873–874, 2004. View at Scopus
  10. D. Melzer, B. McWilliams, C. Brayne, T. Johnson, and J. Bond, “Profile of disability in elderly people: estimates from a longitudinal population study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 318, no. 7191, pp. 1108–1111, 1999. View at Scopus
  11. P. P. Barry, “An overview of special considerations in the evaluation and management of the geriatric patient,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 8–10, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Sura, A. Madhavan, G. Carnaby, and M. A. Crary, “Dysphagia in the ederly: management and nutritional considerations,” Clinical Interventions in Aging, vol. 7, pp. 287–298, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. H. Siebens, E. Trupe, A. Siebens, et al., “Correlates and consequences of eating dependency in institutionalized elderly,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 192–198, 1986. View at Scopus
  14. O. Ekberg and M. J. Feinberg, “Altered swallowing function in elderly patients without dysphagia: radiologic findings in 56 cases,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 156, no. 6, pp. 1181–1184, 1991. View at Scopus
  15. M. Trabucchi, Le demenze, Utet Scienze Mediche, Torino, Italy, 4th edition, 2005.
  16. C. Berr, J. Wancata, and K. Ritchie, “Prevalence of dementia in the elderly in Europe,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 463–471, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. Fratiglioni, L. J. Launer, K. Andersen et al., “Incidence of dementia and major subtypes in Europe: a collaborative study of population-based cohorts,” Neurology, vol. 54, no. 11, supplement 5, pp. S10–S15, 2000. View at Scopus
  18. K. Asplund, M. Normark, and V. Pettersson, “Nutritional assessment of psychogeriatric patients,” Age and Ageing, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 87–94, 1981. View at Scopus
  19. B. G. Atalay, C. Yaǧmur, T. Z. Nursal, H. Atalay, and T. Noyan, “Use of subjective global assessment and clinical outcomes in critically ill geriatric patients receiving nutrition support,” Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 454–459, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. E. Stuck and S. Ilife, “Comprehensive geriatric assessment for older adults,” British Medical Journal, vol. 343, pp. 1029–1030, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. C. E. Graf, D. Zekry, S. Giannelli, J. P. Michel, and T. Chevalley, “Efficiency and applicability of comprehensive geriatric assessment in the emergency department: a systematic review,” Aging Clinical Experimental Research, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 244–254, 2011.
  22. T. Takayama, K. Takayama, N. Inoue et al., “Prediction of survival and complications after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in an individual by using clinical factors with an artificial neural network system,” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1279–1285, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. L. Mitchell, J. M. Teno, D. K. Kiely et al., “The clinical course of advanced dementia,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 16, pp. 1529–1538, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. Wolfson, D. B. Wolfson, M. Asgharian et al., “A reevaluation of the duration of survival after the onset of dementia,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 344, no. 15, pp. 1111–1116, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Ellershaw and C. Ward, “Care of the dying patient: the last hours or days of life,” British Medical Journal, vol. 326, no. 7379, pp. 30–34, 2003. View at Scopus
  26. L. S. Williams, “Feeding patients after stroke: who, when, and how,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 59–60, 2006. View at Scopus
  27. M. Dennis, S. C. Lewis, C. Warlow, and FOOD Trial Collaboration, “Effect of timing and method of enteral tube feeding for dysphagic stroke patients (FOOD): a multicentre randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9461, pp. 764–772, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. Y. Safadi, J. M. Marks, and J. L. Ponsky, “Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: an update,” Endoscopy, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 781–789, 1998. View at Scopus
  29. S. P. Schrag, R. Sharma, N. P. Jaik et al., “Complications related to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes. A comprehensive clinical review,” Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 407–418, 2007. View at Scopus
  30. G. M. Eisen, T. H. Baron, J. A. Dominitz et al., “Role of endoscopy in enteral feeding,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 794–797, 2002. View at Scopus
  31. M. Gauderer, “Twenty years of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: origin and evolution of a concept and its expanded applications,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 879–883, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. M. Hossein, M. Leili, and A. M. Hossein, “Acceptability and outcomes of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement and patient quality of life,” Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 128–133, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. A. McClave and W. K. Chang, “Complications of enteral access,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 739–751, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. D. Grant, M. A. Rudberg, and J. A. Brody, “Gastrostomy placement and mortality among hospitalized medicare beneficiaries,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 279, no. 24, pp. 1973–1976, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. Pennington, “To PEG or not to PEG,” Clinical Medicine, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 250–255, 2002. View at Scopus
  36. R. Wirth, D. Volkert, J. M. Bauer et al., “PEG tube placement in German geriatric wards—a retrospective data-base analysis,” Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 21–30, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. E. Gessert and D. R. Calkins, “Rural-urban differences in end-of-life care: the use of feeding tubes,” Journal of Rural Health, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 16–24, 2001. View at Scopus
  38. S. L. Mitchell and J. M. Tetroe, “Survival after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement in older persons,” Journals of Gerontology Series A, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. M735–M739, 2000. View at Scopus
  39. T. S. Dharmarajan, D. Unnikrishnan, and C. S. Pitchumoni, “Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and outcome in dementia,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 96, no. 9, pp. 2556–2563, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. F. Cosentino, Le Complicanze in Endoscopia Digestiva, Masson, Milan, Italy, 1997.
  41. C. L. Lewis, C. E. Cox, J. M. Garrett et al., “Trends in the use of feeding tubes in north carolina hHospitals 1989 to 2000,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1034–1038, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. S. Sanders, M. J. Carter, J. D'Silva, G. James, R. P. Bolton, and K. D. Bardhan, “Survival analysis in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding: a worse outcome in patients with dementia,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 1472–1475, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. E. Koulentaki, N. Reynolds, D. Steinke et al., “Eight years' experience of gastrostomy tube management,” Endoscopy, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 941–945, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. I. Li, “Feeding tubes in patients with severe dementia,” American Family Physician, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 1605–1610, 2002. View at Scopus
  45. S. R. Odom, J. E. Barone, S. Docimo, S. M. Bull, and D. Jorgensson, “Emergency department visits by demented patients with malfunctioning feeding tubes,” Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 651–653, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. E. P. Mcnamara, P. Flood, and N. P. Kennedy, “Enteral tube feeding in the community: survey of adult patients discharged from a dublin hospital,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. P. L. Pancorbo-Hidalgo, F. P. García-Fernandez, and C. Ramírez-Pérez, “Complications associated with enteral nutrition by nasogastric tube in an internal medicine unit,” Journal of Clinical Nursing, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 482–490, 2001. View at Scopus
  48. T. Tokunaga, T. Kubo, S. Ryan et al., “Long-term outcome after placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube,” Geriatrics and Gerontology International, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 19–23, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. V. H. Chong and C. Vu, “Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy outcomes: can patient profiles predict mortality and weaning?” Singapore Medical Journal, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 383–387, 2006. View at Scopus
  50. E. Bannerman, J. Pendlebury, F. Phillips, and S. Ghosh, “A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of health-related quality of life after percutaneous gastrostomy,” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1101–1109, 2000. View at Scopus
  51. E. Rimon, N. Kagansky, and S. Levy, “Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; evidence of different prognosis in various patient subgroups,” Age and Ageing, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 353–357, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. B. M. Smith, P. Perring, M. Engoren, and J. J. Sferra, “Hospital and long-term outcome after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy,” Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 74–80, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. B. Alvarez-Fernández, M. A. García-Ordoñez, C. Martínez-Manzanares, and R. Gómez-Huelgas, “Survival of a cohort of elderly patients with advanced dementia: nasogastric tube feeding as a risk factor for mortality,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 363–370, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. Blomberg, P. Lagergren, L. Martin, F. Mattsson, and J. Lagergren, “Albumin and C-reactive protein levels predict short-term mortality after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in a prospective cohort study,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 29–36, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. E. Paillaud, P. N. Bories, I. Merlier, J. P. Richardet, V. Jeanfaivre, and B. Campillo, “Facteurs pronostiques de la survie à court et long terme après pose d'une gastrostomie percutanée endoscopique chez des malades âgés hospitalisés,” Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 443–447, 2002.
  56. V. Abitbol, H. Selinger-Leneman, Y. Gallais et al., “Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in elderly patients. A prospective study in a geriatric hospital,” Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 448–453, 2002. View at Scopus
  57. P. M. Shah, S. Sen, L. C. Perlmuter, and A. Feller, “Survival after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: the role of dementia,” Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 255–259, 2005. View at Scopus
  58. A. Lang, E. Bardan, Y. Chowers et al., “Risk factors for mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy,” Endoscopy, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 522–526, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. D. I. Gaines, V. Durkalski, A. Patel, and M. H. DeLegge, “Dementia and cognitive impairment are not associated with earlier mortality after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy,” Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 62–66, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. K. Kobayashi, G. S. Cooper, A. Chak, M. V. Sivak, and R. C. K. Wong, “A prospective evaluation of outcome in patients referred for PEG placement,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 500–506, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. D. Johnston, T. C. K. Tham, and M. Mason, “Death after PEG: results of the national confidential enquiry into patient outcome and death,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 223–227, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. F. A. F. Figueiredo, M. C. da Costa, A. D. Pelosi, R. N. Martins, L. Machado, and E. Francioni, “Predicting outcomes and complications of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy,” Endoscopy, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 333–338, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. F. Cardin, N. Minicuci, P. Siviero et al., “Esophagitis in frail elderly people,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 257–263, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. E. M. Inelmen and F. Cardin, “Terminology issues: is frailty a problem?” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 43, no. 2, p. 199, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. G. Abuksis, M. Mor, N. Segal et al., “Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: high mortality rates in hospitalized patients,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 128–132, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. G. Abuksis, M. Mor, S. Plaut, G. Fraser, and Y. Niv, “Outcome of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG): comparison of two policies in a 4-year experience,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 341–346, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. Boffelli, R. Rozzini, and M. Trabucchi, “Nutritional intervention in special care units for dementia,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1216–1217, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. D. Ramsey, D. Smithard, N. Donaldson, and L. Kalra, “Is the gag reflex useful in the management of swallowing problems in acute stroke?” Dysphagia, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 105–107, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. D. G. Smithard, P. A. O'Neill, C. Park et al., “Can bedside assessment reliably exclude aspiration following acute stroke?” Age and Ageing, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 99–106, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. R. Salassa, “A functional outcome swallowing scale for staging oropharyngeal dysphagia,” Digestive Diseases, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 230–234, 1999. View at Scopus
  71. T. Kitamura, H. Nakase, and H. Iizuka, “Risk factors for aspiration pneumonia after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy,” Gerontology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 224–227, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. S. E. Langmore, K. A. Skarupski, P. S. Park, and B. E. Fries, “Predictors of aspiration pneumonia in nursing home residents,” Dysphagia, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 298–307, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. E. Toubes, K. Singh, O. Yin et al., “Risk factors for antibiotic-resistant infection and treatment outcomes among hospitalized patients transferred from long-term care facilities: does antimicrobial choice make a difference?” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 724–730, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. Leibovitz, G. Plotnikov, B. Habot, M. Rosenberg, and R. Segal, “Pathogenic colonization of oral flora in frail elderly patients fed by nasogastric tube of percutaneous enterogastric tube,” Journals of Gerontology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 52–55, 2003. View at Scopus
  75. M. M. McMahon, D. L. Hurley, P. S. Kamath, and P. S. Mueller, “Medical and ethical aspects of long-term enteral tube feeding,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 80, no. 11, pp. 1461–1476, 2005. View at Scopus
  76. M. Stroud, H. Duncan, and J. Nightingale, “Guidelines for enteral feeding in adult hospital patients,” Gut, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. vii1–vii12, 2003. View at Scopus
  77. F. Angus and R. Burakoff, “The percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube: medical and ethical issues in placement,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 272–277, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. L. Rabeneck, L. B. McCullough, and N. P. Wray, “Ethically justified, clinically comprehensive guidelines for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement,” The Lancet, vol. 349, no. 9050, pp. 496–498, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. D. F. Kirby, M. H. Delegge, and C. R. Fleming, “American gastroenterological association technical review on tube feeding for enteral nutrition,” Gastroenterology, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 1282–1301, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. Miján De La Torre, B. De Mateo Sillerasa, and A. Pérez-García, “Guidelines for nutrition support in the elderly,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 1379–1384, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. S. E. J. Janes, C. S. G. Price, and S. Khan, “Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: 30-day mortality trends and risk factors,” Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 23–29, 2005. View at Scopus
  82. D. S. Sanders, A. J. Anderson, and K. D. Bardhan, “Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: an effective strategy for gastrostomy feeding in patients with dementia,” Clinical Medicine, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 235–241, 2004. View at Scopus
  83. B. D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen, H. R. W. Pasman, A. Kruit, A. Van Der Heide, M. W. Ribbe, and G. Van Der Wal, “Withholding or withdrawing artificial administration of food and fluids in nursing-home patients,” Age and Ageing, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 459–465, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. I. Bourdel-Marchasson, F. Dumas, G. Pinganaud, J. P. Emeriau, and A. Decamps, “Audit of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in long-term enteral feeding in a nursing home,” International Journal for Quality in Health Care, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 297–302, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. S. Nair, H. Hertan, and C. S. Pitchumoni, “Hypoalbuminemia is a poor predictor of survival after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in elderly patients with dementia,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 133–136, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. Y. Tokuda and H. Koketsu, “High mortality in hospitalized elderly patients with feeding tube placement,” Internal Medicine, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 613–616, 2002. View at Scopus
  87. L. M. Murphy and T. O. Lipman, “Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy does not prolong survival in patients with dementia,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 163, no. 19, pp. 1351–1353, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. Z. Arinzon, A. Peisakh, and Y. N. Berner, “Evaluation of the benefits of enteral nutrition in long-term care elderly patients,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 657–662, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. C. M. Callahan, K. M. Haag, M. Weinberger et al., “Outcomes of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy among older adults in a community setting,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 1048–1054, 2000. View at Scopus
  90. A. Erdil, M. Saka, Y. Ates et al., “Enteral nutrition via percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and nutritional status of patients: five-year prospective study,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1002–1007, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. M. A. Rudberg, B. L. Egleston, M. D. Grant, and J. A. Brody, “Effectiveness of feeding tubes in nursing home residents with swallowing disorders,” Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 97–102, 2000. View at Scopus
  92. Y. Kosaka, M. Yamaya, K. Nakajoh, T. Matsui, M. Yanai, and H. Sasaki, “Prognosis of elderly patients with dysphagia in Japan,” Gerontology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 111–112, 2000. View at Scopus
  93. N. E. Jones, R. Dhaliwal, A. G. Day, H. Ouellette-Kuntz, and D. K. Heyland, “Factors predicting adherence to the canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients,” Journal of Critical Care, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 301–307, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. J. C. Ahronheim, M. Mulvihill, C. Sieger, P. Park, and B. E. Fries, “State practice variations in the use of tube feeding for nursing home residents with severe cognitive impairment,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 148–152, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. C. E. Gessert, M. C. Mosier, E. F. Brown, and B. Frey, “Tube feeding in nursing home residents with severe and irreversible cognitive impairment,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 1593–1600, 2000. View at Scopus
  96. S. L. Mitchell, D. K. Kiely, and M. R. Gillick, “Nursing home characteristics associated with tube feeding in advanced cognitive impairment,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 75–79, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. S. L. Mitchell, J. M. Teno, J. Roy, G. Kabumoto, and V. Mor, “Clinical and organizational factors associated with feeding tube use among nursing home residents with advanced cognitive impairment,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, no. 1, pp. 73–80, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. U. K. Braun, L. Rabeneck, L. B. McCullough et al., “Decreasing use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding for veterans with dementia—racial differences remain,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 242–248, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. D. E. Meier, J. C. Ahronheim, J. Morris, S. Baskin-Lyons, and R. S. Morrison, “High short-term mortality in hospitalized patients with advanced dementia: lack of benefit of tube feeding,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 161, no. 4, pp. 594–599, 2001. View at Scopus
  100. C. M. Callahan, N. N. Buchanan, and T. E. Stump, “Healthcare costs associated with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy among older adults in a defined community,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1525–1529, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. S. L. Mitchell, J. L. Buchanan, S. Littlehale, and M. B. Hamel, “Tube-feeding versus hand-feeding nursing home residents with advanced dementia: a cost comparison,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 5, pp. S23–S29, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. Elia and R. J. Stratton, “A cost-utility analysis in patients receiving enteral tube feeding at home and in nursing homes,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 416–423, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. A. M. Clarfield, “Enteral feeding tubes in end-stage dementia patients: to insert or not to insert? Administrative and financial aspects,” Israel Medical Association Journal, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 467–469, 2005. View at Scopus
  104. J. M. Teno, Z. Feng, S. L. Mitchell, S. Kuo, O. Intrator, and V. Mor, “Do financial incentives of introducing case mix reimbursement increase feeding tube use in nursing home residents?” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 887–890, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. G. M. A. Van Rosendaal, M. J. Verhoef, and T. D. Kinsella, “How are decisions made about the use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for long-term nutritional support?” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 94, no. 11, pp. 3225–3228, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. E. Lubart, A. Leibovitz, and B. Habot, “Attitudes of relatives and nursing staff toward tuboenteral feeding in severely demented patients,” American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 31–34, 2004. View at Scopus
  107. S. L. Mitchell, J. Tetroe, and A. M. O'Connor, “A decision aid for long-term tube feeding in cognitively impaired older persons,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 313–316, 2001. View at Scopus
  108. A. M. Brotherton and B. Carter, “Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding in nursing homes: relatives' perceptions,” Clinical Nursing Research, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 350–369, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. D. K. Gjerdingen, J. A. Neff, M. Wang, and K. Chaloner, “Older persons' opinions about life-sustaining procedures in the face of dementia,” Archives of Family Medicine, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 421–425, 1999. View at Scopus
  110. A. S. Brett and J. C. Rosenberg, “The adequacy of informed consent for placement of gastrostomy tubes,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 161, no. 5, pp. 745–748, 2001. View at Scopus
  111. S. D. Ladas, K. Triantafyllou, I. Liappas et al., “Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: adequacy and quality of information given to decision-makers,” Digestive Diseases, vol. 20, no. 3-4, pp. 289–292, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. H. Enoki, Y. Hirakawa, Y. Masuda et al., “Association between feeding via percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and low level of caregiver burden,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 1484–1486, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. K. Aita, M. Takahashi, H. Miyata, I. Kai, and T. E. Finucane, “Physicians' attitudes about artificial feeding in older patients with severe cognitive impairment in Japan: a qualitative study,” BMC Geriatrics, vol. 7, article 22, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. C. Bell, E. Somogyi-Zalud, K. Masaki, T. Fortaleza-Dawson, and P. L. Blanchette, “Factors associated with physician decision-making in starting tube feeding,” Journal of Palliative Medicine, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 915–924, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. E. W. Mebane, R. F. Oman, L. T. Kroonen, and M. K. Goldstein, “The influence of physician race, age, and gender on physician attitudes toward advance care directives and preferences for end-of-life decision-making,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 579–591, 1999. View at Scopus
  116. S. Thomas and F. C. Leslie, “Healthcare professionals' knowledge about percutaneous gastrostomy feeding: how well are we doing?” Gut, vol. 58, supplement 1, p. S83, 2009.
  117. J. Kondrup, H. H. Ramussen, O. Hamberg et al., “Nutritional risk screening (NRS 2002): a new method based on an analysis of controlled clinical trials,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 321–336, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. C. Monteleoni and E. Clark, “Using rapid-cycle quality improvement methodology to reduce feeding tubes in patients with advanced dementia: before and after study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 329, no. 7464, pp. 491–494, 2004. View at Scopus
  119. A. C. Milne, A. Avenell, and J. Potter, “Improved food intake in frail older people,” British Medical Journal, vol. 332, article 1165, 2006. View at Scopus
  120. H. A. Smith, J. Kindell, R. C. Baldwin, D. Waterman, and A. J. Makin, “Swallowing problems and dementia in acute hospital settings: practical guidance for the management of dysphagia,” Clinical Medicine, Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 544–548, 2009. View at Scopus
  121. N. Veronese, M. De Rui, E. Toffanello et al., “Body mass index as a predictor of all-cause mortality in nursing home residents during a 5-years follow-up,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  122. D. Volkert, Y. N. Berner, E. Berry, et al., “ESPN Guidelines on enteral nutrition: geriatrics,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 330–360, 2006.
  123. E. L. Sampson, B. Candy, and L. Jones, “Enteral tube feeding for older people with advanced dementia,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, Article ID CD007209, 2009. View at Scopus