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Figure 3: Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve in mice leads to decreased release of proinflammatory gene products in the peritoneal cavity after surgical manipulation. Shown are the levels of mouse TNF, CCL-2, and IL-6 in the peritoneal cavity of mice that underwent vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) of the cervical nerve 3 h before laparotomy control (L) or intestinal manipulation (IM) surgery. Data are modified from [48], Tytgat Institute, 2012.