ISRN Geriatrics The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Understanding Physical Activity in the Daily Lives of Bangladeshi and Pakistani Elders in Great Britain Wed, 26 Mar 2014 06:43:33 +0000 In the United Kingdom, there are physical activity guidelines specifically for older adults. Self-report data indicate that approximately 15% of those achieved 65+ the activity target of 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise on 5 (or more) days a week and 30% when the 150 minutes may be achieved in 10-minute (or greater) bursts. Levels of activity are higher among men, the more affluent, and those aged 65–74 but we have little evidence about levels of activity among the ageing ethnic minority population. Reanalysis of 109 interviews conducted with people aged 50+ from Bangladeshi and Pakistani communities was undertaken to explore how participants talk about physical activity in terms of their daily lives. Few, 13 participants (7 females), reported that physical activity and/or exercise formed part of their daily routine; a further 7 had been advised to take exercise by their doctors but had not done so and 9 described why they could not exercise. Barriers to exercise included lack of time (because of work or childcare) and cultural factors such as ideas about age and gender appropriate behaviour. We need to develop appropriate interventions to encourage exercise which address these cultural factors and general barriers to exercise. Christina R. Victor Copyright © 2014 Christina R. Victor. All rights reserved. Limited Functional Health Literacy, Health Information Sources, and Health Behavior among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Japan Thu, 06 Mar 2014 20:10:47 +0000 The objectives of this study were to explore how health information sources vary by functional health literacy levels and the relationship between health literacy and health behaviors among the old-old, community-dwelling adults. A cross-sectional study was used. The sample included 620 participants from a rural community in northern Japan. We used structured questionnaires to gather demographic information and assess health-related behaviors, information sources utilized, and functional health literacy. Functional health literacy scores were categorized into three groups, namely, low, middle, and high literacy. Individuals with limited health literacy were more likely to drink less alcohol, were less physically active, had less dietary variety, and had a low rate of medical check-ups. They were also less likely to use printed media, organization or medical procedure, electronic media, and accessed fewer health-related information sources. This study highlights the necessity of information tools that facilitate better access to information among older adults with limited health literacy. Yuko Yoshida, Hajime Iwasa, Shu Kumagai, Takao Suzuki, and Hideyo Yoshida Copyright © 2014 Yuko Yoshida et al. All rights reserved. Alcohol Consumption among the Oldest Old and How It Changes during Two Years Wed, 18 Dec 2013 16:26:55 +0000 This longitudinal study aimed to examine the pattern of alcohol consumption (using the AUDIT-C) among the oldest old (80+) and how it changed two years later. Five hundred seventy-six persons from the Gothenburg metropolitan area were interviewed between 2008 and 2011. Men represented a higher proportion of at-risk consumers (21.8%) than women (14.5%), but there was no sex difference in binge drinking (13.8% versus 12%). Men decreased their weekly consumption and also the proportion of binge drinking, and women decreased only in binge drinking. Further studies of the causality between alcohol consumption and health are suggested. Robin Fornazar, Fredrik Spak, Synneve Dahlin-Ivanoff, and Katarina Wilhelmson Copyright © 2013 Robin Fornazar et al. All rights reserved. The Prevalence of Social Engagement in the Disabled Elderly and Related Factors Thu, 20 Jun 2013 12:49:46 +0000 The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and related factors of social engagement in the disabled elderly. Participants were 86 elderly ranging from 65 to 84 years of age with disability dwelling in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Among them, socially engaged elderly were 23 people (26.7% of the participants). Seventeen of the 23 socially engaged elderly were mildly disabled (32.7% of the mild disability group). Four were moderately disabled (20.0% of the moderate disability group), and 2 were severely disabled elderly (14.3% of the severe disability group). Factors related to social engagement in the disabled elderly were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results showed that self-rated health and psychological independence were significantly associated with social engagement in the disabled elderly. This result did not change even after adjusting for disability status level. These findings suggest that support in psychological aspects, such as self-rated health and psychological independence, may promote social engagement in the disabled elderly. Midori Kimura, Sachiko Yamazaki, Hiroshi Haga, and Seiji Yasumura Copyright © 2013 Midori Kimura et al. All rights reserved. Small-World Properties in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer’s Disease: A Cortical Thickness MRI Study Thu, 21 Mar 2013 11:33:37 +0000 Background. Small-world network consists of networks with local specialization and global integration. Our objective is to detect small-world properties alteration based on cortical thickness in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) including stables and converters, and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to controls. Methods. MRI scans of 13 controls, 10 MCI, and 10 with early AD were retrospectively analyzed; 11 MCI converters, 11 MCI stables, and 10 controls from the ADNI website were also included. Results. There were significantly decreased local efficiencies in patients with MCI and AD compared to controls; and MCI patients showed increased global efficiency compared to AD and controls. The MCI converters experience the worst local efficiency during the converting period to AD; the stables, however, have highest local and global efficiency. Conclusions. The abnormal cortical thickness-based small-world properties in MCI and AD as well as the distinct patterns between two MCI subtypes suggest that small-world network analysis has the potential to better differentiate different stages of early dementia. Yongxia Zhou and Yvonne W. Lui Copyright © 2013 Yongxia Zhou and Yvonne W. Lui. All rights reserved. Population-Based Analysis of Incidence Rates of Cancer and Noncancer Chronic Diseases in the US Elderly Using NLTCS/Medicare-Linked Database Wed, 20 Mar 2013 09:21:49 +0000 The age, disability, and comorbidity patterns of incidence rates of cancer and chronic noncancer diseases such as heart failure, diabetes mellitus, asthma, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, skin melanoma, and cancers of breast, prostate, lung, and colon were studied for the US elderly population (aged 65+) using the National Long-Term Care Survey (NLTCS) data linked to Medicare records for 1991–2005. Opposite to breast cancer and asthma, incidence rates of heart failure and Alzheimer's diseases were increasing with age. Higher incidence rates of heart failure, diabetes, asthma, and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases were observed among individuals with severe disabilities or/and comorbidities, while rates of breast and prostate cancers were higher among those with minor disabilities or fewer comorbidities. Our results were in agreement with those obtained from other epidemiological datasets, thus suggesting that Medicare administrative records can provide nationally representative incidence rates. Detailed sensitivity analysis that focused on the effects of alternative onset definitions, latent censoring, study design, and other procedural uncertainties showed the stability of reconstructed incidence rates. This Medicare-linked dataset can be used for studying highly debated effects of new medical technologies on aging-related diseases burden and future Medicare costs. I. Akushevich, J. Kravchenko, S. Ukraintseva, K. Arbeev, and A. Yashin Copyright © 2013 I. Akushevich et al. All rights reserved. Expanding Assessment of Fear of Falling among Older Adults with an Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study to Assess the Value of Proxy Responses Sat, 16 Mar 2013 13:01:47 +0000 Introduction. Fear of falling (FOF) has emerged as an important health concern in older adults, yet it has rarely been investigated in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Valid and reliable measurement approaches are a particular challenge. Scales that have been developed to measure FOF have not been validated for use with older people with ID and are not routinely used with proxy respondents. Method. 63 people comprised purposeful samples of 3 groups, people with ID , their nominated key workers , and additional support workers . Test-retest reliability and interrater reliability were assessed for using a dichotomous, single-item FOF screening measure. The degree of FOF and activity restriction due to FOF were also investigated. Results. Inter-rater reliability was found to be moderate to excellent with Kappa = 0.77 on ratings of the FOF item. Test-retest reliability for each group of reviewers for the FOF item were also found to be excellent (0.95). Conclusion. The global item is a suitable screening measure for FOF in older adults with ID and can assist in identification of individuals requiring further assessment. Proxies, if carefully selected, can provide consistent and reliable reports of the presence of FOF in people with ID. Sinéad Foran, Mary McCarron, and Philip McCallion Copyright © 2013 Sinéad Foran et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Masticatory Indicator Using a Checklist of Chewable Food Items for the Community-Dwelling Elderly Tue, 25 Dec 2012 12:30:54 +0000 The purpose of the present study was to develop a new assessment scale to evaluate masticatory ability among community-dwelling elderly individuals. The study comprised 761 independent elderly subjects residing in the community. We pooled 25 food items with various textures. Based upon the pass rate and nonresponse rate, we extracted 9 food items to be included in the masticatory ability assessment for the community-dwelling elderly (MACE). The reliability of this assessment was determined using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. We then examined the concurrent validity of the MACE by comparing it with an existing method termed “mastication score.” Additionally, the convergent validity was examined by comparing the correlation coefficients of MACE, general oral health assessment index (GOHAI), and the number of teeth. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of MACE was 0.89 (), indicating satisfactory reliability. MACE was significantly correlated with the mastication score (), GOHAI (), and the number of teeth (). These results suggest that MACE is a useful tool with sufficient reliability and validity to identify declines in masticatory ability among community-dwelling elderly individuals. Hiroko Miura, Kayoko Sato, Shuichi Hara, Kiyoko Yamasaki, and Naoko Morisaki Copyright © 2013 Hiroko Miura et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Enactment in Learning American Sign Language in Younger and Older Adults Mon, 03 Dec 2012 08:43:30 +0000 “Tell me, and I will forget. Show me, and I may remember. Involve me, and I will understand” (Confucius, 450 B.C). Philosophers and scientists alike have pondered the question of the mind-body link for centuries. Recently the role of motor information has been examined more specifically for a role in learning and memory. This paper describes a study using an errorless learning protocol to teach characters to young and older persons in American Sign Language. Participants were assigned to one of two groups: recognition (visually recognizing signs) or enactment (physically creating signs). Number of signs recalled and rate of forgetting were compared between groups and across age cohorts. There were no significant differences, within either the younger or older groups for number of items recalled. There were significant differences between recognition and enactment groups for rate of forgetting, within young and old, suggesting that enactment improves the strength of memory for items learned, regardless of age. Alison Fenney and Timothy D. Lee Copyright © 2013 Alison Fenney and Timothy D. Lee. All rights reserved. Assessment of Malnutrition in Community Chinese Elderly: A Hidden Problem in a Developed Society Mon, 05 Nov 2012 08:23:25 +0000 Background. Malnutrition can lead to chronic disease especially in vulnerable population. This study is to explore the extent of the malnutrition problem in community Chinese elderly and its associating factors in Hong Kong. Method. This is a cross-sectional study using structured interview with 7-day food frequency questionnaires. 1960 men and 1954 women aged 65 or above were recruited from the community. Results. Less than half of the participants fulfilled the recommended intake level of the others. Less than 10% of participants met the daily requirement of fibre, Calcium, Vitamin D, Iodine, and Copper. 22.32% of male participants and 6.21% of female participants have cholesterol intake exceeding the recommended upper level. 41.19% men and 28.99% women exceeded the upper level of fat percentage of total energy. Educational level was demonstrated to have a consistent positive association with the adequate intake in most nutrients. Single or divorced marital status is a risk factor in over-intake of saturated fatty acid in men and under-intake in Zinc and meat in women. Conclusion. Our study has shown the serious malnutrition problem in a wide range of nutrients in community Chinese elderly in Hong Kong. Josette Sin-yee Chor, Jason Leung, Sian Griffiths, and Ping-chung Leung Copyright © 2013 Josette Sin-yee Chor et al. All rights reserved.