Table 1: Dataset independence for pixel-based features, each dataset separately.

Classifier Trained on Tested on Avg. error versus own testset
MNIST DIGITS USPS

IBk1 euclidean MNIST 3.09 19.21 17.49 5.94x
IBk1 euclidean DIGITS 36.22 16.59 52.72 2.68x
IBk1 euclidean USPS 28.41 55.01 5.33 7.83x

IBk1 NCC MNIST 2.83 17.65 13.70 5.54x
IBk1 NCC DIGITS 32.42 14.14 44.59 2.72x
IBk1 NCC USPS 26.06 51.17 4.58 8.43x

IBk1 TD MNIST 1.51 13.53 5.63 6.34x
IBk1 TD DIGITS 25.88 10.02 37.77 3.18x
IBk1 TD USPS 10.51 36.47 3.64 6.45x

SVM linear MNIST 6.83 34.97 16.24 3.75x
SVM linear DIGITS 31.57 16.09 45.54 2.40x
SVM linear USPS 40.64 63.25 6.53 7.95x

SVM polynomial MNIST 1.27 16.20 11.56 10.93x
SVM polynomial DIGITS 30.05 11.47 47.68 3.39x
SVM polynomial USPS 44.78 74.33 4.43 13.44x

SVM RBF MNIST 4.31 53.34 20.78 8.60x
SVM RBF DIGITS 51.50 33.74 60.09 1.65x
SVM RBF USPS 81.05 89.98 7.37 11.60x

convNN MNIST 0.74 8.24 3.48 7.92x
convNN DIGITS 21.43 5.73 30.0 4.49x
convNN USPS 4.25 27.56 3.08 5.16x