Table 2: Dataset independence for gradient-based features, each dataset separately.

Classifier Trained onTested on Avg. error versus own testset
MNIST DIGITS USPS

IBk1 euclidean MNIST 1.29 12.08 5.98 7.00x
IBk1 euclidean DIGITS 21.91 7.29 37.62 4.08x
IBk1 euclidean USPS 10.30 33.07 3.49 6.21x

SVM linear MNIST 1.34 12.92 5.63 6.92x
SVM linear DIGITS 19.76 5.12 30.54 4.91x
SVM linear USPS 14.62 39.37 3.34 8.08x

SVM polynomial MNIST 0.47 8.07 4.43 13.30x
SVM polynomial DIGITS 17.81 3.67 24.86 5.81x
SVM polynomial USPS 14.68 39.03 2.79 9.63x

SVM RBF MNIST 0.57 8.30 4.28 11.04x
SVM RBF DIGITS 17.75 4.06 25.46 5.32x
SVM RBF USPS 14.89 40.03 2.79 9.84x