Table 9: Some applications of natural biomaterials.

ApplicationNatural biomaterial

Artificial heart valvesBovine pericardium, Intact porcine aortic valves
Hernia repair devicesPorcine small intestinal submucosa, porcine urinary bladder mucosa, Porcine dermal grafts
SuturesCatgut (porcine or bovine intestinal wall) and porcine dermal grafts
Skin repair/wound careDermal allograft, porcine small intestinal submucosa, and porcine dermal grafts
Vascular prosthesesBovine ureter, porcine small intestinal submucosa, and Ovine arteries
Urethral repairPorcine bladder
Breast reconstructionDermal allograft
Ligament repairDermal allograft, porcine small intestinal submucosa, and fetal bovine skin
Spinal fusion/bone healingBone allograft