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ISRN Materials Science
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 107178, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/107178
Review Article

Diffuse Scattering from Lead-Containing Ferroelectric Perovskite Oxides

Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia

Received 17 April 2013; Accepted 22 May 2013

Academic Editors: S. J. Milne and A. O. Neto

Copyright © 2013 D. J. Goossens. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Ferroelectric materials rely on some type of non-centrosymmetric displacement correlations to give rise to a macroscopic polarisation. These displacements can show short-range order (SRO) that is reflective of the local chemistry, and so studying it reveals important information about how the structure gives rise to the technologically useful properties. A key means of exploring this SRO is diffuse scattering. Conventional structural studies use Bragg peak intensitiesto determine the average structure. In a single crystal diffuse scattering (SCDS) experiment, the coherent scattered intensity is measured at non-integer Miller indices, and can be used to examine the population of local configurations. This is because the diffuse scattering is sensitive to two-body averages, whereas the Bragg intensity gives single-body averages. This review outlines key results of SCDS studies on several materials and explores the similarities and differences in their diffuse scattering. Random strains are considered, as are models based on a phonon-like picture or a more local-chemistry oriented picture. Limitations of the technique are discussed.