About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
ISRN Materials Science
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 938625, 22 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/938625
Review Article

A Review on the Structural Studies of Batteries and Host Materials by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

Department of Industrial Chemistry “Toso Montanari,” University of Bologna, Viale del Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna, Italy

Received 25 March 2013; Accepted 17 April 2013

Academic Editors: S. X. Dou, F. M. Labajos, Z. Luo, and Y. Masuda

Copyright © 2013 Marco Giorgetti. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This review highlights the use of the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as a local structural tool for selected atoms in several host materials. The main characteristics of XAS to be element-sensitive and its applicability to all states of matter, including crystalline solids and amorphous and liquid states, permit an in-depth study of the structural properties of a large variety of materials. This includes intercalation materials where a host structure can accommodate guest species. Host guest equilibria are at the basis of a large variety of technological applications; in particular they have been used for energy storage, ion-exchange membranes, electrochromism, and analytical sensing. A selection of XAS experiments conducted in the field of batteries, mainly on cathodes, and applications in the field of metal hexacyanoferrates and double layered hydroxides are outlined.