ISRN Meteorology http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Air Temperature Estimation by Using Artificial Neural Network Models in the Greater Athens Area, Greece Mon, 28 Oct 2013 17:16:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2013/489350/ Air temperature (T) data were estimated in the regions of Nea Smirni, Penteli, and Peristeri, in the greater Athens area, Greece, using the T data of a reference station in Penteli. Two artificial neural network approaches were developed. The first approach, MLP1, used the T as input parameter and the second, MLP2, used additionally the time of the corresponding T. One site in Nea Smirni, three sites in Penteli, from which two are located in the Pentelikon mountain, and one site in Peristeri were selected based on different land use and altitude. T data were monitored in each site for the period between December 1, 2009, and November 30, 2010. In this work the two extreme seasons (winter and summer) are presented. The results showed that the MLP2 model was better (higher and lower MAE) than MLP1 for the T estimation in both winter and summer, independently of the examined region. In general, MLP1 and MLP2 models provided more accurate T estimations in regions located in greater distance (Nea Smirni and Peristeri) from the reference station in relation to the nearby Pentelikon mountain. The greater distance T estimations, in most cases, were better in winter compared to summer. A. P. Kamoutsis, A. S. Matsoukis, and K. I. Chronopoulos Copyright © 2013 A. P. Kamoutsis et al. All rights reserved. The Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy during Premonsoon Season over Kharagpur as Revealed by STORM Experimental Data Mon, 16 Sep 2013 10:26:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2013/972942/ Turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget variations during thunderstorm days (TD) and nonthunderstorm days (NTD) of premonsoon seasons of 2007, 2009, and 2010 have been investigated at a tropical station Kharagpur (22°30′N, 87°20′E) using the surface layer turbulence data obtained during severe thunderstorms-observations and regional modeling (STORM) experiment. Significant variations in the contributions of the TKE budget parameters with respect to stability are observed on these contrasting days of weather activity. In highly unstable conditions, smaller dissipation rates are seen on TD compared to NTD, while approaching near neutral conditions, higher dissipation rates are found in TD. New relationships between TKE dissipation rates with respect to atmospheric stability are proposed at Kharagpur for TD and NTD. Bhishma Tyagi and A. N. V. Satyanarayana Copyright © 2013 Bhishma Tyagi and A. N. V. Satyanarayana. All rights reserved. An Observing System Simulation Experiment for the Impact of MTG Candidate Infrared Sounding Mission on Regional Forecasts: System Development and Preliminary Results Tue, 09 Apr 2013 10:14:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2013/971501/ An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) was designed and developed to assess the potential benefit of the Infrared Sounding on the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG-IRS) geostationary meteorological satellite system to regional forecasts. In the proposed OSSE framework, two different models, namely, the MM5 and WRF models, were used in a nature run and data assimilation experiments, respectively, to reduce the identical twin problem. The 5-day nature run, which included three convective storms that occurred during the period from 11 to 16 June 2002 over US Great Plains, was generated using MM5 with a 4 km. The simulated “conventional” observations and MTG-IRS retrieved temperature and humidity profiles, produced from the nature run, were then assimilated into the WRF model. Calibration experiments showed that assimilating real or simulated “conventional” observations yielded similar error statistics in analyses and forecasts, indicating that the developed OSSE system worked well. On average, the MTG-IRS retrieved profiles had positive impact on the analyses and forecasts. The analyses reduced the errors not only in the temperature and the humidity fields but in the horizontal wind fields as well. The forecast skills of these variables were improved up to 12 hours. The 18 h precipitation forecast accuracy was also increased. Hongli Wang, Xiang-Yu Huang, and Yongsheng Chen Copyright © 2013 Hongli Wang et al. All rights reserved. Role of Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation on Track and Intensity of Severe Cyclonic Storms Wed, 27 Feb 2013 19:26:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2013/972713/ To examine the role of four dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) on prediction of two Severe Cyclonic Storm (Aila (May 23–26, 2009) andJal (Nov 4–8, 2010)), four numerical experiments are performed using WRF-ARW model with three nested domains having two-way interaction and physical parameterization schemes as CPS-BMJ, MP-WSM6, and PBL-YSU. In each experiment, the model integration is started prior to the formation of depression and continued till the observed landfall. For the experiment without FDDA, NCEP-FNL data alone is used as initial and boundary conditions and for the experiments with FDDA, additional observations are used. In all the experiments, FDDA is considered only in the outer domain upto 24 hrs of integration and then the inner domain is introduced. The results are examined in terms of surface circulation, vorticity, CSLP, MSW, and surface track error. FDDA-produced surface circulation and vorticity showed well-organized structure. For the case of Aila, the surface track (maximum track error: 281 km) and landfall position (88°E/21.73°N) in FDDA experiment are predicted better than experiment without FDDA (track error: 445 km and landfall position 87.13°E/20.37°N) whereas the landfall time experiment without FDDA is closer to observations (between 09 and 12 UTC of May 25) than that of experiment with FDDA(06 UTC of May 25). When CSLP and MSW are examined, the overall intensity is well predicted with FDDA experiment except near to the landfall time. For Jal cyclone, FDDA played significant role to improve the landfall position (80.16°E/13.67°N) with a time lead of ~10 hrs but other parameters remain more or less unchanged. Radhika D. Kanase and P. S. Salvekar Copyright © 2013 Radhika D. Kanase and P. S. Salvekar. All rights reserved. The West African Sahel: A Review of Recent Studies on the Rainfall Regime and Its Interannual Variability Sun, 17 Feb 2013 07:59:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2013/453521/ The West African Sahel is well known for the severe droughts that ravaged the region in the 1970s and 1980s. Meteorological research on the region has flourished during the last decade as a result of several major field experiments. This paper provides an overview of the results that have ensued. A major focus has been on the West African monsoon, a phenomenon that links all of West Africa. The characteristics and revised picture of the West African monsoon are emphasized. Other topics include the interannual variability of rainfall, the atmospheric circulation systems that govern interannual variability, characteristics of precipitation and convection, wave activity, large-scale factors in variability (including sea-surface temperatures), and land-atmosphere relationships. New paradigms for the monsoon and associated ITCZ and for interannual variability have emerged. These emphasize features in the upper atmosphere, as well as the Saharan Heat Low. Feedback mechanisms have also been emphasized, especially the coupling of convection with atmospheric dynamics and with land surface characteristics. New results also include the contrast between the premonsoon and peak monsoon seasons, two preferred modes of interannual variability (a latitudinal displacement of the tropical rainbelt versus changes in its intensity), and the critical importance of the Tropical Easterly Jet. Sharon E. Nicholson Copyright © 2013 Sharon E. Nicholson. All rights reserved. Main Characteristics of Mexico City Local Wind Events during the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign within a Meso-β Scale Lattice Wind Modeling Approach Mon, 04 Feb 2013 15:01:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2013/605210/ A characterization of local wind events in Mexico City, which occurred during MILAGRO campaign, was carried out within the framework of a lattice wind modeling approach at a meso-β scale. Mexico City was modeled as a 2D lattice domain with a given number of identical cells. Local wind conditions at any cell were described by a state variable defined by the spatial averages of wind attributes such as speed, direction, divergence, and vorticity. Full and partial densities of wind states were discussed under different conditions using two simple lattice wind models. We focus on the results obtained with the 1-cell lattice wind model and provide brief comments about preliminary results obtained with the 4-cell model. The 1-cell model allowed identifying the main patterns of the wind circulation in Mexico City throughout the study period (anabatic and katabatic winds, winds induced by the urban heat island, and winds with high possibilities for exchanging pollutants between Mexico City and the neighboring settlements, among others). The model showed that Mexico City wind divergence and vorticity disclose superposed oscillations whose most important periods were 24 and 12 hours, suggesting strong connections with the diurnal cycle of incoming solar radiation and the urban heat island. Ana-Teresa Celada-Murillo, Susana Carreón-Sierra, Alejandro Salcido, Telma Castro, Oscar Peralta, and Teodoro Georgiadis Copyright © 2013 Ana-Teresa Celada-Murillo et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Influence of Stratospheric Intrusion on the Surface Ozone Levels in India” Tue, 04 Dec 2012 11:45:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/128214/ Nandita D. Ganguly Copyright © 2012 Nandita D. Ganguly. All rights reserved. Extreme Hydrologic Events in North Area of Buenos Aires Province (Argentina) Thu, 29 Nov 2012 15:40:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/415081/ This paper presents the soil water deficit and soil water surplus obtained from soil water balance in three drainage areas of Buenos Aires province for the period from 1971 to 2010. The soil water balance had been performed using the evapotranspiration formula of Penman-Monteith and considering the soil water constants: field capacity, soil water moisture, and soil wilting point for all the different types of soils of the region. The obtained soil water deficit and surplus are considered as triggers of extreme hydrologic events. Annual threshold values of 200 mm of soil water deficit and 300 mm of soil water surplus were considered for drought and flood, respectively. It was found that almost the 25% of the floods are severe and extreme while the 50% of droughts were of these intensities. Mann-Kendall statistical test was performed, and significance trends at level 0.1 were found for drought and for two periods, one of twenty years (1991–2010) and the other of ten years (2001–2010). As a sample of the temporal evolution of both events and their trends, the results of one locality (Junin) were deeply analyzed. Alberto Daniel Capriolo and Olga Eugenia Scarpati Copyright © 2012 Alberto Daniel Capriolo and Olga Eugenia Scarpati. All rights reserved. Evaluating the Performance of a Regional-Scale Photochemical Modelling System: Part I—Ozone Predictions Thu, 29 Nov 2012 14:47:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/860234/ We present a detailed evaluation of the seasonal performance of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modelling system and the PSU/NCAR meteorological model coupled to a new Numerical Emission Model for Air Quality (MNEQA). The combined system simulates air quality at a fine resolution (3 km as horizontal resolution and 1 h as temporal resolution) in north-eastern Spain, where problems of ozone pollution are frequent. An extensive database compiled over two periods, from May to September 2009 and 2010, is used to evaluate meteorological simulations and chemical outputs. Our results indicate that the model accurately reproduces hourly and 1-h and 8-h maximum ozone surface concentrations measured at the air quality stations, as statistical values fall within the EPA and EU recommendations. However, to further improve forecast accuracy, three simple bias-adjustment techniques—mean subtraction (MS), ratio adjustment (RA), and hybrid forecast (HF)—based on 10 days of available comparisons are applied. The results show that the MS technique performed better than RA or HF, although all the bias-adjustment techniques significantly reduce the systematic errors in ozone forecasts. R. Arasa, M. R. Soler, and M. Olid Copyright © 2012 R. Arasa et al. All rights reserved. A Comparison of Bangladesh Climate Surfaces from the Geostatistical Point of View Thu, 29 Nov 2012 12:13:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/353408/ This study analyses the degree and margin of differences among the surfaces of annual total precipitation in wet days (PRCPTOT) and the yearly maximum value of the daily maximum temperature (TXx) of Bangladesh, produced by thin plate spline (TPS), inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), and universal kriging (UK) methods of spatial interpolation. From the surface differences, the maximum and minimum differences are observed between the surfaces produced by TPS and IDW, and OK and UK, respectively. The residual plots from cross-validation depict that IDW and OK methods mostly under predict and TPS and UK methods mostly overpredict the observed climate indices’ values. Both the tendency of methods’ over and underprediction and the surface-differences decrease with the increase in the number of available spatial point observations. Finally, two performance measures—the index of agreement () and the coefficient of variation of prediction ()—imply that there is a little difference in the prediction ability of the four different methods. The performance of the spatial interpolation improves with the increase in the number of available spatial points, and eventually the predicted climate surfaces get similar. However, UK shows better interpolation performance in most of the years. Avit Kumar Bhowmik Copyright © 2012 Avit Kumar Bhowmik. All rights reserved. The Performance of Different Boundary-Layer Parameterisations in Meteorological Modelling in a Southwestern Coastal Area of the Iberian Peninsula Sun, 25 Nov 2012 15:45:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/983080/ The performance of four atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) schemes in reproducing the diurnal cycles of surface meteorological parameters as well as the ABL structure and depth over a coastal area of southwestern Iberia was assessed using the mesoscale meteorological Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The standard configuration of the medium-range forecast (MRF) and the Yonsei University (YSU) ABL schemes were employed. Modified versions of each, in which the values of the bulk critical Richardson number () and the coefficient of proportionality () were varied, were also used. The results were compared to meteorological measurements representative of SW-NW and NE synoptic flows. The WRF model in its basic configuration was found to yield satisfactory forecasting results for nearly all near-surface atmospheric variables. Modifications in and did not influence the simulation of surface meteorological parameters. Both parameterisations appeared to be optimal predictors of ABL structure, and all four ABL schemes tended to produce a cold ABL during both periods, although this ABL was drier in the SW-NW flow season and wetter in the NE flow season. Considering all the parameters analysed, the MRF ABL parameterisation with the lowest values of and coefficients tested (0.25 and 0.0, resp.) tends to show a realistic simulation. M. A. Hernández-Ceballos, J. A. Adame, J. P. Bolivar, and B. A. De la Morena Copyright © 2012 M. A. Hernández-Ceballos et al. All rights reserved. The Spatial Pattern of the Sun-Hurricane Connection across the North Atlantic Wed, 14 Nov 2012 10:00:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/517962/ The authors define the spatial response of hurricanes to extremes in the solar cycle. Using an equal-area hexagon tessellation, regional hurricane counts are examined during the period 1851–2010. The response features fewer hurricanes across the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and along the eastern seaboard of the United States when sunspots are numerous. In contrast fewer hurricanes are observed in the central North Atlantic when sunspots are few. The sun-hurricane connection is as important as the El Niño Southern Oscillation toward statistically explaining regional hurricane occurrences. Robert E. Hodges and James B. Elsner Copyright © 2012 Robert E. Hodges and James B. Elsner. All rights reserved. A Comparative Evaluation of a Mesoscale Model and Atmospheric Global Circulation Model for Air Quality Simulation: A Multiscale, Multisite Evaluation Thu, 30 Aug 2012 09:56:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/826074/ Concentrations of atmospheric pollutants are strongly influenced by meteorological parameters like rainfall, relative humidity and wind advection. Thus accurate specifications of the meteorological fields, and their effects on pollutants, are critical requirements for successful modelling of air pollution. In terms of their applications, pollutant concentration models can be used in different ways; in one, short term high resolution forecasts are generated to predict and manage urban pollution. Another application of dynamical pollution models is to generate outlook for a given airbasin, such as over a large city. An important question is application-specific model configuration for the meteorological simulations. While a meso-scale model provides a high-resolution configuration, a global model allows better simulation of large-sale fields through its global environment. Our objective is to comparatively evaluate a meso-scale atmospheric model (MM5) and atmospheric global circulation model (AGCM) in simulating different species of pollutants over different airbasins. In this study we consider four locations: ITO (Central Delhi), Sirifort (South Delhi), Bandra (Mumbai) and Karve Road (Pune). The results show that both the model configurations provide comparable skills in simulation of monthly and annual loads, although the skill of the meso-scale model is somewhat higher, especially at shorter time scales. P. Goswami and J. Baruah Copyright © 2012 P. Goswami and J. Baruah. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study on Performance of Analysis Nudging and 3DVAR in Simulation of a Heavy Rainfall Event Using WRF Modeling System Thu, 23 Aug 2012 14:04:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/523942/ The present study focuses on the performance-based comparison of simulations carried out using nudging (NUD) technique and three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system (3DV) of a heavy rainfall event occurred during 25–28 June 2005 along the west coast of India. The Indian conventional and nonconventional observations are used in the 3DV experiment. Three numerical experiments are conducted using WRF modeling system, the model is integrated upto 54 hours from the initial time 0000 UTC of 25 June 2005. It is noticed that the meteorological parameters are improved in the resulting high-resolution analyses prepared by NUD and 3DV compared to without data assimilation experiment (i.e., called CNTL experiment). However, after the successful inclusion of observations using the 3DVAR data assimilation technique, the model is able to simulate better structure of the convective organization as well as prominent synoptic features associated with the mid-tropospheric cyclones (MTC) than the NUD experiment and well correlated with the observations. The simulated location and intensity of rainfall is also improved in 3DV simulation as compared with other experiments. Similar results are noticed in the root mean squar errors, correlation coefficients, and Equitable Threat Scores between TRMM and model simulated rainfall for all the three experiments. Ashish Routray, Krishna K. Osuri, and Makarand A. Kulkarni Copyright © 2012 Ashish Routray et al. All rights reserved. Studies of Atmospheric Parameters during SW Monsoon Period Associated with Severe Cyclone Aila and Lightning Occurrence over Ranchi Region Tue, 07 Aug 2012 10:10:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/975790/ A number of events are happening every time in the atmosphere in which much of them are randomly generated. Parameters are varying daily like temperature, humidity, electric field, and wind speed. Variation on surface layer parameters, events thunderstorms, earthquake, volcanoes, cyclone, tsunami, and so forth are occurring. Study and correlation between surface layer parameter and occurrence are greatly required in current research scenario. A comparative study about atmospheric parameters has been done just after the Aila; in the day when lightning occurred and correlation coefficients between these parameters are observed. Abhay Srivastava, Manoj Kumar, and Arun K. Dwivedi Copyright © 2012 Abhay Srivastava et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Stratospheric Intrusion on the Surface Ozone Levels in India Wed, 01 Aug 2012 13:45:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/625318/ The surface ozone levels in some Indian cities have increased significantly in the recent years. Ozone being toxic to the living system and an important contributor to anthropogenic global warming, enhanced surface ozone may have adverse effects on the air quality and climate. Transport of ozone from the stratosphere to the troposphere causes stratospheric ozone to decrease and tropospheric ozone to increase, which can in turn have serious consequences for life on earth. Since stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) is an important factor influencing the ozone concentration in the troposphere, this paper investigates probably for the first time the possible contribution of STE events to the observed enhanced surface ozone levels for cities covering from north to south of India. It is concluded that apart from transport processes and in situ photochemical production, STE also influences the observed high-surface ozone levels in Indian cities to a small extent (8%–16%). STE events producing high-surface ozone levels are found to be higher at high latitudes. Nandita D. Ganguly Copyright © 2012 Nandita D. Ganguly. All rights reserved. The Antarctic Oscillation Structure in an AOGCM with Interactive Stratospheric Ozone Sun, 29 Jul 2012 10:40:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/518096/ Based on 150-year equilibrium simulations using the atmosphere-ocean-sea ice general circulation model (AOGCM) ECHO-GiSP, the southern hemisphere winter circulation is examined focusing on tropo-stratosphere coupling and wave dynamics. The model covers the troposphere and strato-mesosphere up to 80 km height and includes an interactive stratospheric chemistry. Compared to the reference simulation without interactive chemistry, the interactive simulation shows a weaker polar vortex in the middle atmosphere and is shifted towards the negative phase of the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) in the troposphere. Differing from the northern hemisphere winter situation, the tropospheric planetary wave activity is weakened. A detailed analysis shows, that the modelled AAO zonal mean signal behaves antisymmetrically between troposphere and strato-mesosphere. This conclusion is supported by reanalysis data and a discussion of planetary wave dynamics in terms of Eliassen-Palm fluxes. Thereby, the tropospheric planetary wave activity appears to be controlled from the middle atmosphere. S. Brand, K. Dethloff, and D. Handorf Copyright © 2012 S. Brand et al. All rights reserved. Implementation and Validation of Dynamical Downscaling in a Microscale Simulation of a Lake Michigan Land Breeze Sun, 29 Jul 2012 09:00:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/529401/ A nested numerical simulation of a land breeze observed over the western Lake Michigan shoreline was completed using the University of Wisconsin Nonhydrostatic Modeling System. This simulation was compared against observations obtained using a variety of instrumentation, most notably a scanning lidar system. The simulated land breeze is shown to closely represent the observations. Most notably, the influence of synoptic scale evolution on the strength and extent of the land breeze is illustrated to be a critical factor in accurately simulating the lifetime of the land breeze. Additionally, model resolution is shown to impact the ability of the simulation to accurately portray the fine scale features of the land breeze circulation, including the depth of the land breeze front and interactions between the land breeze and prevailing synoptic scale flow. Gijs de Boer, Gregory J. Tripoli, and Edwin W. Eloranta Copyright © 2012 Gijs de Boer et al. All rights reserved. The Near-Surface Small-Scale Spatial and Temporal Variability of Sensible and Latent Heat Exchange in the Svalbard Region: A Case Study Thu, 19 Jul 2012 16:14:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/357925/ We present data from two eddy covariance systems for determining the sensible and latent heat flux and the shear stress near the earth's surface. One measures continuously since September 2010 close to the village Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, the other one was located on Kongsvegen glacier for a short period in April 2011. Two examples for small-scale variability are discussed: near surface external gravity waves associated with katabatic wind from the Broggerbreen glacier located a few kilometres southwestern of Ny-Ålesund, and an episode when the two eddy systems at the different measurement sites captured very different conditions at the same time. In case of gravity wave motion the eddy covariance method results in fictitious positive fluxes due to the strong correlation between temperature and vertical wind, which has to be considered carefully. The comparison between the two sites showed that generally the dynamical processes near the Earth’s surface for Ny-Ålesund and the Kongsvegen glacier are different and local. But there are also cases of synchronization due to synoptic influences, and then the same processes are visible at the two measurement sites. Both examples show that the boundary layer in Ny-Ålesund is not only affected by the main glaciers in the east of the village, but also by other orographical characteristics and synoptic issues. Therefore, the only meaningful way to deal with point measurements is to consider them in context with the surrounding orography and the general meteorological conditions. Georg Jocher, Florian Karner, Christoph Ritter, Roland Neuber, Klaus Dethloff, Friedrich Obleitner, Joachim Reuder, and Thomas Foken Copyright © 2012 Georg Jocher et al. All rights reserved. Adaptive Modelling of the Daily Behavior of the Boundary Layer Ozone in Macau Sun, 08 Jul 2012 09:09:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/434176/ The present study aims to develop an efficient dynamic statistical model to describe the daily behavior of boundary layer ozone in Macau. Four types of Kalman-filter-based models were proposed and applied to model the daily maximum of the 8 hr averaged ozone concentrations within a decade (2000–2009). First, the boundary layer ozone was modelled with the time-varying autoregressive model of order p, TVAR(p), which is a pure time series model hindcasting the ozone concentration by a weighted sum of the ozone histories of the previous p days. Then, it was modelled with the time-varying autoregressive model with linear exogenous input, TVAREX-Lin, which combines the TVAR model and the exogenous input of key meteorological variables in a linear fashion. Next, the nonlinear TVAREX model (TVAREX-NLin) which assumes the nonlinear influence of individual meteorological variable on ozone was adopted. Finally, a semiempirical TVAREX model (TVAREX-O3) was proposed to address the coastal nature of Macau and the interaction between the input variables. It was found that the proposed TVAREX-O3 model was the most efficient one among the model candidates in terms of the general modelling performance and the capability of modelling the episode situation. K. M. Chao, K. I. Hoi, K. V. Yuen, and K. M. Mok Copyright © 2012 K. M. Chao et al. All rights reserved. A Sensitivity Study on the Soil Parameter-Boundary Layer Height Interrelationship Sun, 03 Jun 2012 11:49:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/786592/ Simulations with the WRF model have been carried out with high resolution soil data to analyze its effect on planetary boundary layer (PBL) development. The default soil texture distribution of 5′ horizontal resolution has been replaced with a 30′′ one on the basis of the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System and Hungarian Agrogeological Database in Hungary. Soil parameter values determined from HUNSODA and MARTHA Hungarian soil databases were also compared. Comparison of PBL height simulations and measurements obtained by radiometer and windprofiler shows that the impact of soil parameter differences on PBL height evolution is not negligible. The latent heat flux and PBL height daytime courses show significant (𝑃<0.01) differences over more than 50% of the model domain covering the Carpathian basin. Hajnalka Breuer, Ferenc Ács, Ákos Horváth, Borbála Laza, István Matyasovszky, Péter Németh, Tamás Weidinger, and Kálman Rajkai Copyright © 2012 Hajnalka Breuer et al. All rights reserved. Bioclimatological Conditions of Hrubý Jesenik: Their Relationship with Synoptical Situations Mon, 28 May 2012 11:37:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/720957/ The focus of this paper is the characteristics of bioclimatological conditions of one popular touristic region in Czech Republic. Biometeorological conditions of the region were described from the point of view of energy exchange between human body and atmospheric environment. Influences of meteorological agents on human organisms are presented by using two indices based on MENEX model. Indices illustrate the physiological strain and subjective thermal feeling of a person exposed to thermal environment. Obtained values of indices were compared to synoptical weather types. Comparisons were provided for the most uncomfortable conditions. Groups of synoptical weather types that occur when biometeorological conditions are very uncomfortable were found. Wojciech Szarek Copyright © 2012 Wojciech Szarek. All rights reserved. First Observations of Energy Budget and Bulk Fluxes at Ny Ålesund (Svalbard) during a 2010 Transition Period as Analyzed with the BEAR Station Tue, 22 May 2012 14:05:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/675820/ A small-size meteorological mast, BEAR (Budget of Energy for Arctic regions) has been developed as a part of a new autonomous buoy for monitoring the sea ice mass balance. BEAR complements observations of the thickness and thermodynamic properties of the ice/snow pack determined by the so-called Ice-T (Ice-Thickness) buoy, giving access to bulk fluxes and energy budget at the surface, using meteorological measurements. The BEAR mast has been tested with success during ten days in April-May 2010 at Ny Alesund, in the Svalbard archipelago (Norway) showing that meteorological data were close to measurements at the same level of the Italian Climate Change Tower (CCT) from the ISAC-CNR. A discussion is undertaken on bulk fluxes determination and uncertainties. Particularly, the strategy to systematically use different relevant fluxes parameterizations is pointed out to explore flux range uncertainty before to analyze energy budget. Net radiation, bulk fluxes and energy budget are estimated using as average 10 minutes, 24 hours and the ten days of the experiment. The observation period was very short, but we observe a spring transition when the net radiation begins to warm the surface while the very small turbulent heat flux cools the surface. Alain Weill, Laurence Eymard, Frédéric Vivier, Ania Matulka, Rodrigue Loisil, Nadir Amarouche, Jean Michel Panel, Antonio Lourenço, Angelo Viola, Vito Vitale, Stefania Argentini, and Heike Kupfer Copyright © 2012 Alain Weill et al. All rights reserved. Sea-Salt Aerosol Mass Concentration Oscillations after Rainfall, Derived from Long-Term Measurements in Lampedusa (Central Mediterranean) Thu, 26 Apr 2012 08:31:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/679120/ Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) is the dominant contributor to cloud condensation nuclei over ocean areas, where wind speed is significant. Thereby, SSA could affect cloud formation and play an important role in the Earth weather and climate. Rainfall could produce large impact on SSA concentration due to wet removal processes. An analysis of changes in sea-salt aerosol concentration after rainfall is essential for a deeper understanding of the process of SSA loading in the boundary layer. The current experimental study focused on analyzing time variations of SSA mass concentration after rainfall, on the basis of long-term daily SSA measurements during the three-year period 2006–2008, at the tiny Mediterranean island of Lampedusa (Central Mediterranean). To study the effect of rainfall on SSA time variations, we used the superposed epoch method. We applied this approach to differing rainfall events related to different months and atmospheric/sea conditions. Integrated processing was applied to SSA concentration anomalies, in order to filter out random variability. Observational evidence of SSA mass concentration oscillations after rainfall with a maximum on the 2nd day and a minimum on the 4th day was obtained. The knowledge of SSA variations after rainfall is important for validating rainout parameterization in existing sea-salt aerosol and climate models. P. Kishcha, B. Starobinets, R. Udisti, S. Becagli, A. di Sarra, D. Sferlazzo, C. Bommarito, and P. Alpert Copyright © 2012 P. Kishcha et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Fluctuations on Human Behaviour Related to Injury Occurrences: Study on the Background of Low and Moderate Levels of Geomagnetic Activity Thu, 22 Mar 2012 11:24:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/791524/ The effects of slight atmospheric pressure fluctuations (APFs) within two ranges of periods attributed mostly to far infrasound (3 s–120 s) and internal gravity waves (120 s–1200 s) on human behaviour related to injury occurrences, within the one-year interval, are examined. Special interest is paid to the analysis of combined effects of APFs and geomagnetic activity (GMA) attributed to low and moderate levels. The relations between the daily number of emergency transport events due to sport injuries (EEI) and daily mean of APF integral amplitudes within the two ranges (DHAI and DHAG, resp.) along with the planetary geomagnetic index Ap are analysed using the regression models based on categorization. As shown, the high DHAI is a rather strong meteorotropic factor, being of relevance to increase in the incidence of sport injuries. The high DHAG appears to be of opposite sense on the background of low DHAI, promoting the decreased EEI number. The consideration of combined effects of the APF and GMA reveals that the negative effects of high DHAI are more pronounced in combination with low Ap levels. The results are discussed from the viewpoint of the necessity of further medico-meteorological studies using databases of most disturbed geophysical conditions. Lyudmyla Didyk, Yuriy Gorgo, Alina Prigancova, Igor Tunyi, Magdalena Vaczyova, Sergey Mamilov, and Joris Dirckx Copyright © 2012 Lyudmyla Didyk et al. All rights reserved. Simulation of Monsoon Precipitation over South-Asia Using RegCM3 Wed, 04 Jan 2012 18:10:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/754902/ The objective of this study is to explore the capability of the Regional Climate Model (RegCM3), to predict the extreme weather events in south-Asian region with particular reference to precipitation during monsoon season (July, August and September) over northern mountainous and southern plain regions of Pakistan. Different cumulus parameterization schemes in RegCM3 for prediction of convective precipitation are tested for monsoon period during the years 1998 and 2001. The model results are compared with the Climate Research Unit (CRU) observational data and the surface synoptic data of the Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD). The year 1998 was a dry year and proved to be the beginning of a severe drought lasted up to the year 2000. While in year 2001 the precipitation over some parts of the country exceeded the normal, especially the northern parts of the country observed exceptionally high rainfall rate. The results indicate that some convective parameterization schemes of RegCM3 well captured the summer monsoon precipitation over Pakistan. However, the schemes need to be selected carefully depending upon the region of interest. It was found that the Grell scheme with both closures: Arakawa-Schubert (AS) and Fritsch-Chappell (FC) satisfactorily captured the monsoon phenomenon in Pakistan specially for the northern mountainous regions. Abdul Basit, S. Shoaib Raza, N. Irfan, and R. Avila Copyright © 2012 Abdul Basit et al. All rights reserved. Why Is the Influence of Sunspot Peaks on the Ocean and Atmosphere in Northern Winter Seen Mainly in the Pacific Region? Tue, 27 Dec 2011 11:10:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/427457/ The sun at sunspot peaks enhances the climatological means in the Pacific region from the stratosphere to the surface of the sea. The robust signal is physically consistent and statistically significant in the 14 sunspot peaks for which sea-level pressure and sea-surface temperature data are available. No other place shows such a strong influence of the sunspot peaks in the northern winter. Why in the Pacific and why a cooling of equatorial surface waters at sunspot peaks? I suggest that in the Indonesian region the strong convection, higher and colder tropopause, warmer water, and Indonesian topography are conducive to channel the solar influence mainly to this region, leading to an enhancement of the Walker and Hadley circulations, expansion and intensification of the dry zone, and cooler equatorial surface waters. Harry van Loon Copyright © 2012 Harry van Loon. All rights reserved. Analysis of Measured Drop Size Spectra over Land and Sea Wed, 21 Dec 2011 14:44:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/296575/ Drop size spectra were measured by using an optical disdrometer of type ODM 470 at different locations. They were subdivided in to four data sets: measurements over land, in coastal areas, over semienclosed seas, and over the open sea. Based on 1-minute measurement intervals, no differences were found in drop size spectra between continental and maritime areas. An exponential model with a rain rate depending on interception number and prefactor in the exponent fits well the spectra, and maximum drop sizes depend strongly on estimated rain rates. In contrast to other investigations, there are no significant differences between spectra of convective and stratiform rain based on 1-minute measurement intervals. However, spectra integrated over 10 minutes show the expected differences. Karl Bumke and Jörg Seltmann Copyright © 2012 Karl Bumke and Jörg Seltmann. All rights reserved. Comparative Study of the Influence of Air Pollution on UVI at Maitri in Antarctica and New Delhi in India Wed, 16 Nov 2011 12:11:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/315859/ The influence of air pollution on the erythemal ultraviolet irradiance (UVI) reaching the earth's surface has been investigated at the Indian Antarctic station Maitri and compared with that at New Delhi, the capital of India, over a period of three years from 2005 to 2007. Total ozone column (TOC), surface ozone, NO2 column, middle tropospheric SO2 column, and BrO column are observed to exhibit a deceasing trend at Maitri, having a clean and pristine environment, while UVI and aerosol optical depth at 500 nm exhibit an increasing trend. This negative correlation suggests that O3, NO2, SO2, and BrO act as filters against erythemal ultraviolet irradiance reaching the earth's surface, while the aerosols, which are present in the atmosphere of Maitri, may not be either very effective in filtering out the UVI reaching the earth's surface or may not be large enough to produce measurable effects on UVI. TOC and BrO column are observed to exhibit a deceasing trend at New Delhi, having comparatively higher levels of pollution, while UVI, NO2 column, middle tropospheric SO2 column, surface ozone, and aerosol optical depth at 500 nm exhibit an increasing trend. This suggests that TOC and BrO act as filters against UVI, while NO2, surface ozone, SO2, and aerosols in the atmosphere of New Delhi may not be large enough to produce measurable effects on UVI. Nandita D. Ganguly Copyright © 2012 Nandita D. Ganguly. All rights reserved. Fire Weather Index Implementation in the Alpine Area Wed, 26 Oct 2011 11:55:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.meteorology/2012/429072/ Piedmont region is located in North-Western Italy and is surrounded by the alpine chain and by the Apennines. The region is covered by a wide extension of forests, mainly in its mountain areas (the forests cover 36% of the regional territory). In the period 1997–2007, Piedmont gained interest by an average of 378 wildfire events per year, covering an average of 1767 ha of forest per year. Meteorological conditions like long periods without precipitation contribute to create favourable conditions to forest fire development, while the fire propagation is made easier by the foehn winds, frequently interesting the region in winter and spring particularly. We applied the Fire Weather Index FWI (Van Wagner, 1987) to the Piedmont region on warning areas previously defined for fire management purposes (Cane et al., 2008). Here we present a new technique for the definition of thresholds in order to obtain alert levels more suited with the local conditions of the forest fire warning areas. We describe also the implementation of the prognostic FWI prediction system, involving the use of good forecasts of weather parameters at the station locations obtained by the Multimodel SuperEnsemble postprocessing technique. Daniele Cane, Nadia Ciccarelli, and Renata Pelosini Copyright © 2012 Daniele Cane et al. All rights reserved.