Table 1: Effect of various carbon sources on antioxidant potential of Penicillium granulatum.

% activityDextroseMaltoseLactoseStarchGlycerolSucrose

DPPHa assay 7 2 ± 0 . 2 6 2 . 8 ± 0 . 1 1 6 4 . 3 ± 0 . 1 6 0 . 2 ± 0 . 1 5 0 . 2 ± 0 . 9 7 2 . 4 ± 0 . 2 1
Reducing power 0 . 9 0 ± 0 . 8 0 . 5 3 ± 0 . 8 0 . 6 8 6 ± 0 . 2 0 . 5 2 ± 0 . 0 2 0 . 3 2 ± 0 . 0 8 0 . 9 8 0 ± 0 . 1 8
Fe2+ scavenging activity 6 4 . 8 ± 0 . 3 5 4 . 3 ± 0 . 2 4 5 . 2 ± 0 . 3 2 4 0 . 3 ± 0 . 2 4 2 . 4 ± 0 . 5 6 4 . 2 ± 0 . 1 7
FRAPb assay 6 0 . 2 ± 0 . 2 1 5 0 . 8 ± 0 . 3 4 0 . 3 ± 0 . 3 5 3 8 . 2 ± 0 . 5 4 0 . 2 ± 0 . 2 6 1 . 9 ± 0 . 0 4
NOc scavenging activity
 30 min 4 6 . 2 ± 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 8 ± 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 1 ± 0 . 2 2 2 . 1 ± 0 . 0 2 2 2 . 7 ± 0 . 2 3 5 . 0 1 ± 0 . 0 1
 60 min 4 8 . 0 ± 0 . 1 3 7 . 3 ± 0 . 1 2 4 . 2 ± 0 . 1 2 4 . 2 ± 0 . 3 1 2 5 . 1 ± 0 . 0 5 4 2 . 8 ± 0 . 0 1
 90 min 5 1 . 4 ± 0 . 9 4 1 . 2 ± 0 . 5 3 6 . 7 ± 0 . 0 1 1 2 9 . 3 ± 0 . 0 1 1 2 8 . 9 ± 0 . 1 5 3 . 1 6 ± 0 . 1 6
 120 min 6 0 . 3 ± 0 . 1 4 8 . 2 ± 0 . 0 6 3 8 . 4 ± 0 . 0 1 3 7 . 4 ± 0 . 7 1 3 0 . 5 ± 0 . 2 6 2 . 9 8 ± 0 . 0 4
 180 min 6 5 . 2 ± 0 . 1 5 2 . 3 ± 0 . 5 4 2 . 3 ± 0 . 9 4 0 . 7 ± 0 . 8 3 8 . 5 ± 0 . 0 5 6 8 . 2 ± 0 . 2 1
TPCd (mg/mL) 7 . 1 ± 0 . 0 3 4 . 0 ± 0 . 1 4 . 3 ± 0 . 0 2 3 . 4 ± 0 . 0 2 2 . 2 ± 0 . 0 6 7 . 2 8 ± 0 . 0 2
Biomass (g/L) 4 . 5 ± 0 . 0 0 5 2 . 3 ± 0 . 0 4 5 2 . 0 1 ± 0 . 0 7 6 4 . 0 8 ± 0 . 0 9 1 . 5 0 ± 0 . 0 2 3 . 0 5 ± 0 . 0 0 5

aDPPH-1.1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl; bFRAP- ferric reducing antioxidant power; cNO-nitric oxide; dTPC-total phenolic content.