Table 2: Effect of various nitrogen sources on antioxidant potential of Penicillium granulatum.

Nitrogen sourcesDPPHa assayReducing powerFe2+ scavenging activityFRAPb assayNOc scavenging activityTPCd (mg/mL)Biomass (g/L)

Nitrogen rich organic supplements
 Yeast extract 7 2 . 0 ± 0 . 1 2 0 . 9 ± 0 . 8 6 3 . 2 ± 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 2 ± 0 . 1 6 5 . 8 ± 0 . 2 1 7 . 3 ± 0 . 3 3 4 . 2 ± 0 . 0 8
 Peptone 7 1 . 2 ± 0 . 3 0 . 9 3 ± 0 . 6 6 0 . 8 ± 0 . 5 2 5 9 . 8 ± 0 . 2 6 3 . 2 ± 0 . 5 6 . 9 ± 0 . 1 4 . 2 5 ± 0 . 0 5
 Malt extract 6 2 . 6 ± 0 . 1 0 . 6 2 ± 0 . 0 2 5 0 . 2 ± 0 . 2 4 8 . 2 ± 0 . 6 4 5 . 4 ± 0 . 9 1 4 . 0 ± 0 . 1 2 3 . 0 ± 0 . 0 8
 Casein 6 0 . 8 ± 0 . 2 0 . 3 7 4 ± 0 . 2 3 3 2 . 7 ± 0 . 3 3 0 . 2 ± 0 . 3 2 7 . 3 ± 0 . 1 3 . 1 ± 0 . 4 2 3 . 0 ± 0 . 0 0 2
 Soyabean meal 6 8 . 2 ± 0 . 5 6 0 . 6 3 ± 0 . 1 6 0 . 2 ± 0 . 5 6 5 5 . 8 ± 0 . 6 7 5 6 . 3 ± 0 . 5 4 4 . 1 ± 0 . 2 1 2 . 4 5 ± 0 . 0 8
 Urea 3 0 . 8 ± 0 . 4 0 . 1 0 3 ± 0 . 2 1 2 2 . 3 ± 0 . 3 4 2 0 . 8 ± 0 . 7 8 1 . 2 ± 0 . 3 4 0 . 9 ± 0 . 0 6
Inorganic nitrogen sources
 KNO3 6 0 . 3 ± 0 . 3 0 . 5 0 ± 0 . 4 5 5 6 . 3 ± 0 . 5 6 5 4 . 2 ± 0 . 9 8 5 0 . 2 ± 0 . 3 2 3 . 4 ± 0 . 2 1 2 . 3 ± 0 . 0 7
 (NH4)2 SO4 5 3 . 8 ± 0 . 5 6 0 . 2 9 ± 0 . 6 5 0 . 6 ± 0 . 7 8 4 9 . 7 ± 0 . 2 1 4 8 . 8 ± 0 . 5 2 . 8 ± 0 . 0 3 2 . 2 5 ± 0 . 0 7
 (NH4)H2 SO4 5 0 . 6 ± 0 . 2 0 . 2 2 ± 0 . 8 4 2 . 8 ± 0 . 8 9 4 0 . 6 ± 0 . 3 3 6 . 7 ± 0 . 8 2 . 1 ± 0 . 0 4 2 . 3 ± 0 . 0 3
 NH4NO3 5 5 . 4 ± 0 . 6 0 . 3 1 ± 0 . 9 8 5 3 . 2 ± 0 . 3 4 5 1 . 2 ± 0 . 9 5 0 . 2 ± 0 . 5 3 . 1 ± 0 . 7 2 . 3 ± 0 . 0 6
 NaNO3 7 2 . 4 ± 0 . 2 1 0 . 9 8 ± 0 . 1 8 6 4 . 2 ± 0 . 1 7 6 1 . 9 ± 0 . 0 4 6 8 . 2 ± 0 . 2 1 7 . 2 8 ± 0 . 0 2 3 . 0 ± 0 . 0 0 5
 (NH4)2Cl 6 0 . 2 ± 0 . 2 0 . 4 7 ± 0 . 2 4 5 4 . 8 ± 0 . 2 3 5 2 . 8 ± 0 . 5 5 0 . 6 ± 0 . 4 3 . 2 ± 0 . 5 2 . 4 5 ± 0 . 0 7

aDPPH-1.1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl; bFRAP- ferric reducing antioxidant power; cNO-nitric oxide; dTPC-total phenolic content.