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ISRN Microbiology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 916845, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/916845
Review Article

Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

1Departamento de Sistemas Biológicos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100, 04960 Mexico City, Mexico
2Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100, 04960 Mexico City, Mexico
3Departamento de Hidrobiología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico City, Mexico
4Departamento de Biotecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico City, Mexico

Received 31 July 2012; Accepted 29 August 2012

Academic Editors: D. H. Kingsley and M. Mitsumori

Copyright © 2012 Patricia Martínez Cruz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there is documented evidence that probiotics can improve the digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress, and encourage reproduction. Currently, there are commercial probiotic products prepared from various bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others, and their use is regulated by careful management recommendations. The present paper shows the current knowledge of the use of probiotics in aquaculture, its antecedents, and safety measures to be carried out and discusses the prospects for study in this field.