Table 2: Binding energy and relative content of Ti, Ba, and W in XPS spectra.

Specimen 𝑇 𝑖 2 𝑝 3 / 2 𝐵 𝑎 3 𝑑 5 / 2 𝑊 4 𝑓 7 / 2
𝐸 𝑏 , eVRelative content (%) 𝐸 𝑏 , eVRelative content (%) 𝐸 𝑏 , eVRelative content (%)

1458.8100779.41336.6100
781.487
2458.6100780.64036.6100
781.660
3458.8100780.41336.6100
781.487
4458.6100781.610036.6100
5458.022789.810036.6100
459.088
6458.8100781.210036.6100