Table 1: The characteristics of participants.

Supervised group 
Seminar group 
Control group 
ANOVA* or
chi-square test 
value

Public health nurse
 Age, mean (SD)46.1 (9.0)45.0 (10.4)41.1 (8.7)0.123
 Gender
  Female, (%)15 (93.8)22 (91.7)38 (95.0)0.529
  Male, (%)1 (6.2)0 (0.0)2 (5.0)
  Unknown, (%)0 (0.0)2 (8.3)0 (0.0)
 Licenses, (%)
  Public health nurse4 (25.0)5 (22.7)6 (15.0)0.614
  Nurse14 (87.5)20 (90.9)38 (95.0)0.610
  Care manager7 (43.8)10 (45.5)13 (32.5)0.537
  Supervisor of care manager0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (2.5)0.618


Service users
 Age, mean (SD)76.5 (8.3)77.9 (6.5)78.3 (6.4)0.231
 Gender (female), (%)55 (66.5)58 (68.2)76 (78.4)0.128
 Category of certification, (%)0.683
  Specific elderly individuals30 (35.7)32 (37.6)29 (29.9)
  Support level 114 (16.7)15 (17.6)17 (17.5)
  Support level 234 (40.5)35 (41.2)50 (51.5)
  Unknown6 (7.1)3 (3.5)1 (1.0)
 BI, mean (SD)97.6 (5.3)98.0 (4.9)97.9 (5.6)0.993
 Number of comorbidity, mean (SD)3.0 (1.8)3.3 (2.0)3.6 (1.9)0.107
 Live alone, (%) 25 (29.8)32 (37.6)46 (47.4)0.051
 Depression diagnosis, (%)5540.780

*ANOVA: analysis of variance.
BI: Barthel ADL Index score.