Table 1: Presentation of reviewed studies.

Author and dateStudy purposeStudy designSampleFindings

Jordan (1996) [34] Examine lived experiences of AA students in mostly White BSN program Hermeneutics study—interviews 4 AA nursing studentsThree patterns emerged—Seeking Identity: being only AA student in the class led to feelings of representing entire race; Student as Teacher: nursing curricula did not always include cultural differences and was not inclusive; Resoluteness: forced to persevere even in the face of racism, ignorance, and myths

Villarruel et al. (2001) [29]Identify barriers and bridges to educational mobilityQualitative methodology utilizing focus groups37 Hispanic nurses participated in focus groupsFinancial considerations required participants to work while pursuing education and reason many choose ADN program. Institutional barriers included unsupportive faculty, perceived discrimination by faculty and peers, lack of advisement, and lack of scheduling flexibility. Cultural/family barriers included family care giver or wage earner responsibilities

Weaver (2001) [31]To describe supports and struggles endured as studentSurvey40 Native American nurses and nursing studentsBarriers identified included culture shock or differences, endured stereotypes and racist attitudes, isolation, and assumption about cultural identity

Sanner et al. (2002) [23]Explore the experiences of international students in BSN program.Guided interview approach8 Nigerian nursing studentsAll students reported becoming socially isolated and being prewarned of the social and academic challenges of the nursing program. Further identified the need to work to pay academic and living expenses

Perez (2003) [30]To build understanding of the nursing education choices made by participantsQuant./qual. utilizing questionnaire and interviewsQualitative—20 Mexican Americans—all female Quantitative—485 responses yearsNumerous barriers were identified including financial difficulties and need to be employment, nursing education considered more difficult than expected, stress on family priorities and commitments

France et al. (2004) [32]Explore the lived experiences of AA students in a mostly White rural universityPhenomenological approach—interviews4 AA nursing studentsThree themes emerged including—You’re just shoved in the corner: lack of relationships with other students, lack of collegiality and lack of support among classmates, I have to strive to do the best I can: students set high expectations for themselves, and finally, “ You just got to maintain”: students expressed persevering in spite of obstacles

Gardner (2005a) [16]Identify the factors influencing success of foreign-born nursing studentsCase studyEast Indian nursing studentIdentified barriers included family demands and obligations, feeling of exclusion and isolation with regard to peers, and cultural differences including a reluctance to speak up in class or make eye contact with faculty

Gardner (2005b) [24]To document minority nursing students’ perspectives of their experiences in a mostly White programPhenomenological framework utilizing semistructured interviews15 racially and ethnically diverse studentsEmerging themes included—Loneliness and Isolation from majority students; Differentness: feeling “different” from majority students; Absence of Acknowledgment from faculty; Lack of Understanding from peers about cultural differences; Desired Support from Faculty—but often did not receive it; Coping with Insensitivity and Discrimination; Determination to build Better Future

Mills-Wisneski (2005) [33]To examine AA BSN students’ perception of impact of absence of minority facultyDescriptive design-questionnaire utilizing Likert-type scale and open-ended questioning71 AA students from 9 programsStudents expressed concerns about lack of minority role models and difficulty establishing relationship with majority faculty as well as perception of being treated differently by White faculty

Amaro et al. (2006) [22]To determine diverse nursing students perceptions of educational barriersGrounded theory methodology utilizing in-depth interviews17 ethnically diverse recent graduate RN’sStudent needs and barriers included: lack of time due to family responsibilities, lack of adequate finances, major academic difficulties—some related to academic background and language, and prejudice and discrimination

Taxis (2006) [11]To explore the experiences, perceptions, and factors that influence retention and graduation from a mostly White BSN programQualitative methodology utilizing questionnaire and face to face interviews, and focus groupNine Mexican-American students in a predominately White BSN program or recent graduatesIdentified barriers included financial situations that required working which resulted in inadequate time for rest, exercise, and study, not fitting in with Anglo peers, and difficulty functioning in two separate cultures including their predominately White university and their Mexican American peers and family

Goetz (2007) [26]Identify the barriers faced by students completing studies and to identify strategies used to manage or overcome barriersQualitative methodology utilizing interview—grounded theory approach12 Hispanic nurses and nursing studentsNumerous barriers identified including: being ill-prepared for the difficulty and intensity of the nursing program, time management problems balancing home, school and work responsibilities, financial issues, family beliefs and cultural influences, inadequate academic preparation, and prejudices

Rivera-Goba and Nieto (2007) [25]To explore meaning and significance of mentoring during prelicensure program for Latinos in nursingPhenomenological framework utilizing semistructured interviews17 Latina students or recent graduatesMarginalization was identified as a major challenge; feeling isolated or as if they lacked knowledge. Financial burdens were identified as a barrier. Faculty suggested students decrease amount of work although students needed to pay educational expenses as well as family expenses

Bond et al. (2008) [20]To identify perceived barriers and support for retention in nursing programQualitative—focus group studies with theory guided data analysis14 Mexican-American students All HispanicFindings included revealed barriers congruent with model components of financial issues, emotional and moral support issues, professional socialization issues, mentoring, technical support, and academic advising issues

Coleman (2008) [12]To explore academic and social experiences of AA students enrolled in a mostly White institutionQualitative methodology utilizing semistructured interviews14 African-American students from a two-year community collegeFour primary themes emerged including difference, coping, and survival, support systems, and institutional context as having significant influence on the experiences of the students

Evans (2008) [27]Compare and contrast perceptions concerning barriers between minority students and a comparison group of Anglo studentsDescriptive qualitative utilizing semistructured interviews14 Hispanic and American Indian studentsBarriers to success included: financial hardships and work-related issues, heavy family obligations, early difficulty relating to nonminority students and faculty, fear of academic failure, and lack of faculty contact

Loftus and Duty (2010) [28]To determine facilitators and barriers to successful completion of a BSN programNaturalistic utilizing survey314 student participants:
White—276
Black/AA—16
Other minority—17
Five barrier factors were identified including English language and computer skills, workload and pace of program, financial and family concerns, technology access (owning a computer or having internet access), and technology competence

Table 1 identifies author(s), study purpose, sample, and brief description of findings for each study.