About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
ISRN Nursing
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 297173, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/297173
Review Article

Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Mitigation Strategies of Cognitive Deficits in Aging with HIV: Implications for Practice and Research

School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35222, USA

Received 2 December 2012; Accepted 21 December 2012

Academic Editors: P. Di Giulio, S. McClement, and R. Northway

Copyright © 2013 David E. Vance. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. V. Fernández-Montero, P. Barreiro, J. Del Romero, and V. Soriano, “Antiretroviral drugs for pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV infection,” AIDS Review, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 54–61, 2012.
  2. M. W. Hull and J. Montaner, “Antiretroviral therapy: a key component of a comprehensive HIV prevention strategy,” Current HIV/AIDS Reports, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 85–93, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. J. McCabe, S. J. Goldie, and D. N. Fisman, “The cost-effectiveness of directly observed highly-active antiretroviral therapy in the third trimester in HIV-infected pregnant women,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 4, Article ID e10154, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. Wood, M. J. Milloy, and J. S. Montaner, “HIV treatment as prevention among injection drug users,” Current Opinions in HIV/AIDS, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 151–156, 2012.
  5. D. E. Vance and F. P. Robinson, “Reconciling successful aging with HIV: a biopsychosocial overview,” Journal of HIV/AIDS and Social Services, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 59–78, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2009, http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/dataimport/pub/report/2009/jc1700_epi_update_2009_en.pdf.
  7. UNAIDS, “Global report: UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2010,” Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2010.
  8. G. Meyer-Rath, A. Brennan, L. Long, et al., “Cost and outcomes of paediatric antiretroviral treatment in South Africa,” AIDS, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 243–250, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. G. Meyer-Rath, A. Miners, A. C. Santos, E. Variava, and W. D. Venter, “Cost and resource use of patients on antiretroviral therapy in the urban and semi-urban public sectors of South Africa,” Journal of the Acquire Immunodeficiency Syndromes, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. e25–e32, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. C. Ogunmefun, I. Friedman, N. Mothibe, and T. Mbatha, “A national audit of home and community-based care (HCBC) organisations in South Africa,” AIDS Care. In press.
  11. United Nations, “Population ageing and development,” 2009, http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/ageing/ageing2009chart.pdf.
  12. C. Farrelly, “Global aging, well-ordered science, and prospection,” Rejuvenation Research, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 607–612, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. B. Kirk and M. B. Goetz, “Human immunodeficiency virus in an aging population, a complication of success,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 2129–2138, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. Smith, Aging Hearing: HIV Over Fifty, Exploring the New Threat, Senate Committee on Aging, Washington, DC, USA, 2006.
  15. Centers for Disease Control and Preventions, HIV/AIDS Among Person Aged 50 and Older: CDC HIV/AIDS Facts, US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, USA, 2008.
  16. P. B. Baltes and M. M. Baltes, “Psychological perspectives on successful aging: the model of selective optimization with compensation,” in Successful Aging: Perspectives from the Behavioral Sciences, P. B. Baltes and M. M. Baltes, Eds., pp. 1–34, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1990.
  17. B. W. Becker, A. D. Thames, E. Woo, S. A. Castellon, and C. A. Hinkin, “Longitudinal change in cognitive function and medication adherence in HIV-infected adults,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1888–1894, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. D. E. Vance, J. A. Ross, L. Moneyham, K. F. Farr, and P. Fordham, “A model of cognitive decline and suicidal ideation in adults aging with HIV,” Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 150–156, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. J. Byom and L. Turkstra, “Effects of social cognitive demand on theory of mind in conversations of adults with traumatic brain injury,” International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 310–321, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. E. Widera, V. Steenpass, D. Marson, and R. Sudore, “Finances in the older patient with cognitive impairment: ‘He didn't want me to take over’,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 305, no. 7, pp. 698–706, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. D. Thames, V. Streiff, S. M. Patel, S. E. Panos, S. A. Castellon, and C. H. Hinkin, “The role of HIV infection, cognition, and depression in risky decision-making,” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 340–348, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. A. R. Giovagnoli, A. M. da Silva, A. Federico, and F. Cornelio, “On the personal facets of quality of life in chronic neurological disorders,” Neurology, vol. 21, no. 3-4, pp. 155–163, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. N. S. Schutte, T. Searle, S. Meade, and N. A. Dark, “The effect of meaningfulness and integrative processing in expressive writing on positive and negative and life satisfaction,” Cognition and Emotion, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 144–152, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. D. E. Vance, “Increasing cognitive reserve may promote successful cognitive aging,” Nursing, vol. 2, pp. 27–32, 2012.
  25. M. Reger, R. Welsh, J. Razani, D. J. Martin, and K. B. Boone, “A meta-analysis of the neuropsychological sequelae of HIV infection,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 410–424, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. Sacktor, R. H. Lyles, R. Skolasky et al., “HIV-associated neurologic disease incidence changes: multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 1990–1998,” Neurology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 257–260, 2001. View at Scopus
  27. R. K. Heaton, D. B. Clifford, Franklin et al., “HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders persist in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy (CHARTER Study),” American Academy of Neurology, vol. 75, pp. 2087–2096, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. M. R. Basso and R. A. Bornstein, “Estimated premorbid intelligence mediates neurobehavioral change in individuals infected with HIV across 12 months,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 208–218, 2000. View at Scopus
  29. M. R. Lentz, W. K. Kim, H. Kim, et al., “Alterations in brain metabolism during the first year of HIV infection,” Journal of Neurovirology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 220–229, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. B. C. Schweinsburg, M. J. Taylor, O. M. Alhassoon et al., “Brain mitochondrial injury in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive (HIV+) individuals taking nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 356–364, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Ritchie and J. Touchon, “Mild cognitive impairment: conceptual basis and current nosological status,” The Lancet, vol. 355, no. 9199, pp. 225–228, 2000. View at Scopus
  32. J. A. Schneider, Z. Arvanitakis, L. Yu, P. A. Boyle, S. E. Leugans, and D. A. Bennett, “Cognitive impairment, decline and fluctuations in older community-dwelling subjects with Lewy bodies,” Brain, vol. 135, part 10, pp. 3005–3014, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. D. E. Vance, P. L. Fazeli, J. Kaur, P. Pearce, and T. McGuiness, “Neuropsychology and cognitive health in healthy older adults: a brief overview for psychiatric nurses,” Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 30–37, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. J. T. Becker, O. L. Lopez, M. A. Dew, and H. J. Aizenstein, “Prevalence of cognitive disorders differs as a function of age in HIV virus infection,” AIDS, vol. 18, supplement 1, pp. S11–S18, 2004. View at Scopus
  35. K. P. High, V. Valcour, and R. Paul, “HIV infection and dementia in older adults,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 1449–1454, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. N. Sacktor, R. Skolasky, O. A. Selnes et al., “Neuropsychological test profile differences between young and old human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 203–209, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. A. Wendelken and V. Valcour, “Impact of HIV and aging on neuropsychological function,” Journal of Neurovirology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 256–263, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. D. E. Vance and T. C. Struzick, “Addressing risk factors of cognitive impairment in adults aging with HIV: a social work model,” Journal of Gerontological Social Work, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 51–77, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. Ancuta, A. Kamat, K. J. Kunstman et al., “Microbial translocation is associated with increased monocyte activation and dementia in AIDS patients,” PLoS ONE, vol. 3, no. 6, Article ID e2516, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. H. Burdo, M. R. Lentz, P. Autissier et al., “Soluble CD163 made by monocyte/macrophages is a novel marker of HIV activity in early and chronic infection prior to and after antiretroviral therapy,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 204, no. 1, pp. 154–163, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. H. Burdo, J. Lo, S. Abbara et al., “Soluble CD163, a novel marker of activated macrophages, is elevated and associated with noncalcified coronary plaque in HIV-infected patients,” Journal of Infectious Disease, vol. 204, no. 8, pp. 1227–1236, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. N. Thieblemont, L. Weiss, H. M. Sadeghi, C. Estcourt, and N. Haeffner-Cavaillon, “CD14loWCD16high: a cytokine-producing monocyte subset which expands during human immunodeficiency virus infection,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 3418–3424, 1995. View at Scopus
  43. D. E. Vance, P. L. Fazeli, and C. A. Gakumo, “The impact of neuropsychological performance on everyday functioning between older and younger adults with and without HIV,” Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. T. T. Baldewicz, J. Leserman, S. G. Silva et al., “Changes in neuropsychological functioning with progression of HIV-1 infection: results of an 8-year longitudinal investigation,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 345–355, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. V. Valcour, C. Shikuma, B. Shiramizu et al., “Age, apolipoprotein E4, and the risk of HIV dementia: the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cohort,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 157, no. 1-2, pp. 197–202, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Cherner, R. J. Ellis, D. Lazzaretto et al., “Effects of HIV-1 infection and aging on neurobehavioral functioning: preliminary findings,” AIDS, vol. 18, supplement 1, pp. S27–S34, 2004. View at Scopus
  47. D. J. Hardy and D. E. Vance, “The neuropsychology of HIV/AIDS in older adults,” Neuropsychology Review, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 263–272, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. A. Lindl, D. R. Marks, D. L. Kolson, and K. L. Jordan-Sciutto, “HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: pathogenesis and therapeutic opportunities,” Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 294–309, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. L. Malaspina, S. P. Woods, D. J. Moore et al., “Successful cognitive aging in persons living with HIV infection,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 110–119, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. E. E. Morgan, S. P. Woods, L. Delano-Wood, M. W. Bondi, and I. Grant, “Intraindividual variability in HIV infection: evidence for greater neurocognitive dispersion in older HIV seropositive adults,” Neuropsychology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 645–654, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. V. Valcour, R. Paul, J. Nevhaus, and C. Shikuma, “The effects of age and HIV on neuropsychological performance,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 190–195, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. V. Valcour and B. Shiramizu, “HIV-associated dementia, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress,” Mitochondrion, vol. 4, no. 2-3, pp. 119–129, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. D. Fields, The other Brain: from Dementia to Schizophrenia, How New Discoveries about the Brain are Revolutionizing Medicine and Science, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY, USA, 2009.
  54. R. Restak, Think Smart: A Neuroscientist’s Prescription for Improving Brain’s Performance, Penguin, New York, NY, USA, 2009.
  55. Y. Stern, “Cognitive reserve,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 2015–2028, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. D. E. Vance and M. Crowe, “A proposed model of neuroplasticity and cognitive reserve in older adults,” Activities, Adaptation and Aging, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 61–79, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. E. Vance and M. A. Wright, “Positive and negative neuroplasticity: implications for age, related cognitive declines,” Journal of Gerontological Nursing, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 11–17, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. C. L. Haass-Koffler and S. E. Bartlett, “Stress and addiction: contribution of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) system in neuroplasticity,” Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, vol. 5, article 91, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. S. Koganemaru, K. Domen, H. Fukuyama, and T. Mima, “Negative emotion can enhance human motor cortical plasticity,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 35, pp. 1637–1645, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. D. E. Vance, “Implications of positive and negative neuroplasticity on cognition in HIV,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. HY3–HY5, 2010. View at Scopus
  61. D. E. Vance, A. J. Roberson, T. M. Mcguinness, and P. L. Fazeli, “How neuroplasticity and cognitive reserve protect cognitive functioning,” Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 23–30, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. D. E. Vance, J. Kaur, P. L. Fazeli, et al., “Neuroplasticity and successful cognitive aging: a brief overview for nursing,” Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 218–227, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. M. C. Diamond, “An optimistic view of the aging brain,” Generations, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 31–33, 1993.
  64. S. Kobayashi, Y. Ohashi, and S. Ando, “Effects of enriched environments with different durations and starting times on learning capacity during aging in rats assessed by a refined procedure of the Hebb-Williams maze task,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 340–346, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. N. W. Milgram, E. Head, S. C. Zicker et al., “Learning ability in aged beagle dogs is preserved by behavioral enrichment and dietary fortification: a two-year longitudinal study,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 77–90, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. V. Paban, M. Jaffard, C. Chambon, M. Malafosse, and B. Alescio-Lautier, “Time course of behavioral changes following basal forebrain cholinergic damage in rats: environmental enrichment as a therapeutic intervention,” Neuroscience, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 13–32, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. L. Petrosini, P. De Bartolo, F. Foti et al., “On whether the environmental enrichment may provide cognitive and brain reserves,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 221–239, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. Urakawa, H. Hida, T. Masuda, S. Misumi, T. S. Kim, and H. Nishino, “Environmental enrichment brings a beneficial effect on beam walking and enhances the migration of doublecortin-positive cells following striatal lesions in rats,” Neuroscience, vol. 144, no. 3, pp. 920–933, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. H. Van Praag, G. Kempermann, and F. H. Gage, “Neural Consequences of environmental enrichment,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 191–198, 2000. View at Scopus
  70. E. A. Maguire, D. G. Gadian, I. S. Johnsrude et al., “Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 8, pp. 4398–4403, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. E. A. Maguire, K. Woollett, and H. J. Spiers, “London taxi drivers and bus drivers: a structural MRI and neuropsychological analysis,” Hippocampus, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 1091–1101, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. Boyke, J. Driemeyer, C. Gaser, C. Büchel, and A. May, “Training-induced brain structure changes in the elderly,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 28, no. 28, pp. 7031–7035, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. C. Brayne, P. G. Ince, H. A. D. Keage et al., “Education, the brain and dementia: neuroprotection or compensation?” Brain, vol. 133, part 8, pp. 2210–2216, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. Gauthier and C. Ballard, Management of Dementia, Informa Healthcare USA, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2009.
  75. C. M. Roe, M. A. Mintun, G. D'Angelo, C. Xiong, E. A. Grant, and J. C. Morris, “Alzheimer disease and cognitive reserve: variation of education effect with carbon 11-labeled pittsburgh compound B uptake,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 1467–1471, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. C. Berry and K. P. Balachandran, “Importance of collateral circulation in coronary heasrt disease,” European Heart Journal, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 278–291, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. J. M. Foley, M. L. Ettenhofer, M. S. Kim, N. Behdin, and S. A. Castellon, “Cognitive reserve as a protective factor in older HIV-positive patients at risk of cognitive decline,” Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 16–25, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. A. C. Satori, D. E. Vance, L. Z. Slater, and M. Crowe, “The impact of inflammation on cognitive function in older adults: implications for healthcare practice and research,” Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 206–217, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  79. A. C. Hearps, T. A. Angelovich, A. Jaworowski, J. Mills, A. L. Landay, and S. M. Crowe, “HIV infection and aging of the innate immune system,” Sexual Health, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 453–464, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. B. T. Baune, G. Ponath, J. Golledge et al., “Association between IL-8 cytokine and cognitive performance in an elderly general population-The MEMO-Study,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 937–944, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. J. P. Godbout and R. W. Johnson, “Age and neuroinflammation: a lifetime of psychoneuroimmune consequences,” Neurologic Clinics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 521–538, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. G. Ravaglia, P. Forti, F. Maioli et al., “The clock-drawing test in elderly Italian community dwellers: associations with sociodemographic status and risk factors for vascular cognitive impairment,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 287–295, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. K. Yaffe, K. Lindquist, Penninx et al., “Inflammatory markers and cognition in well-functioning African-American and white elders,” Neurology, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 76–80, 2003. View at Scopus
  84. I. Kusao, B. Shiramizu, C. Y. Liang, et al., “Cognitive performance related to HIV-1-infected monocytes,” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 71–80, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. P. M. Thompson, R. A. Dutton, K. M. Hayashi et al., “Thinning of the cerebral cortex visualized in HIV/AIDS reflects CD4+ T lymphocyte decline,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 43, pp. 15647–15652, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. D. E. Vance, K. I. Larsen, G. Eagerton, and M. A. Wright, “Comorbidities and cognitive functioning: implications for nursing practice and research,” Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 215–224, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. F. E. de Leeuw, J. C. de Groot, M. Oudkerk et al., “Hypertension and cerebral white matter lesions in a prospective cohort study,” Brain, vol. 125, no. 4, pp. 765–772, 2002. View at Scopus
  88. D. Liao, L. Cooper, J. Cai et al., “Presence and severity of cerebral white matter lesions and hypertension, its treatment, and its control: the ARIC study,” Stroke, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 2262–2270, 1996. View at Scopus
  89. H. Bruehl, O. T. Wolf, V. Sweat, A. Tirsi, S. Richardson, and A. Convit, “Modifiers of cognitive function and brain structure in middle-aged and elderly individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Brain Research, vol. 1280, pp. 186–194, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. O. I. Okereke, J. H. Kang, N. R. Cook et al., “Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cognitive decline in two large cohorts of community-dwelling older adults,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 1028–1036, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. H. Umegaki, T. Hayashi, H. Nomura, et al., “Cognitive dysfunction: an emerging concept of a new diabetic complications in the elderly,” Geriatrics and Gerontology International, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 28–34, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  92. G. Guaraldi, G. Orlando, S. Zona, et al., “Premature age-related comorbidities among HIV-infected persons compared with the general population,” 2011 Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 53, pp. 1120–1126. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  93. K. K. Oursler, J. L. Goulet, S. Crystal et al., “Association of age and comorbidity with physical function in hiv-infected and uninfected patients: results from the veterans aging cohort study,” AIDS Patient Care and STDs, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. D. E. Vance, M. Mugavero, J. Willig, J. L. Raper, and M. S. Saag, “Aging with HIV: a cross-sectional study of comorbidity prevalence and clinical characteristics across decades of life,” The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 17–25, 2011. View at Scopus
  95. S. Hekimi, J. Lapointe, and J. Wen, “Taking a “good” look at free radicals in the aging process,” Trends in Cell Biology, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 569–576, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. S. Asha Devi, “Aging brain: prevention of oxidative stress by vitamin E and exercise,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 9, pp. 366–372, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. R. Singh, S. S. Kanwar, P. K. Sood, and B. Nehru, “Beneficial effects of folic acid on enhancement of memory and antioxidant status in aged rat brain,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 83–91, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. J. A. Joseph, B. Shukitt-Hale, N. A. Denisova et al., “Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 19, no. 18, pp. 8114–8121, 1999. View at Scopus
  99. J. A. Joseph, B. Shukitt-Hale, N. A. Denisova et al., “Long-term dietary strawberry, spinach, or vitamin E supplementation retards the onset of age-related neuronal signal-transduction and cognitive behavioral deficits,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 18, no. 19, pp. 8047–8055, 1998. View at Scopus
  100. T. N. Akbaraly, I. Hininger-Favier, I. Carrière et al., “Plasma selenium over time and cognitive decline in the elderly,” Epidemiology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 52–58, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. J. A. Joseph, B. Shukitt-Hale, G. Casadesus, and D. Fisher, “Oxidative stress and inflammation in brain aging: nutritional considerations,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 30, no. 6-7, pp. 927–935, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. S. A. Mandel, T. Amit, O. Weinreb, and M. B. H. Youdim, “Understanding the broad-spectrum neuroprotective action profile of green tea polyphenols in aging and neurodegenerative diseases,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 187–208, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. C. B. Pocernich, M. L. B. Lange, R. Sultana, and D. A. Butterfield, “Nutritional approaches to modulate oxidative stress in Alzheime's disease,” Current Alzheimer Research, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 452–469, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. C. C. Tangney, Y. Tang, D. A. Evans, and M. C. Morris, “Biochemical indicators of vitamin B12 and folate insufficiency and cognitive decline,” Neurology, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 361–367, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. L. Z. Slater, L. Moneyham, D. E. Vance, J. L. Raper, M. Mugavero, and G. Childs, “Support, stigma, health, coping, and quality of life in older gay men with HIV,” Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 38–49, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. R. M. Reynolds, “Glucocorticoid excess and the developmental origins of disease: two decades of testing the hypothesis,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  107. T. Jones and M. D. Moller, “Implications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning in posttraumatic stress disorder,” Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 393–403, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  108. K. Hoehn and E. N. Marieb, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 2010.
  109. G. P. Chrousos and P. W. Gold, “The concepts of stress and stress system disorders: overview of physical and behavioral homeostasis,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 267, no. 9, pp. 1244–1252, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. S. J. Lupien, A. Fiocco, N. Wan et al., “Stress hormones and human memory function across the lifespan,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 225–242, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. B. K. Lee, T. A. Glass, M. J. McAtee et al., “Associations of salivary cortisol with cognitive function in the Baltimore memory study,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 810–818, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. A. S. Karlamangla, B. H. Singer, J. Chodosh, B. S. McEwen, and T. E. Seeman, “Urinary cortisol excretion as a predictor of incident cognitive impairment,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 26, pp. S80–S84, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. R. A. Shippy and S. E. Karpiak, “The aging HIV/AIDS population: fragile social networks,” Aging and Mental Health, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 246–254, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. C. Grov, S. A. Golub, J. T. Parsons, M. Brennan, and S. E. Karpiak, “Loneliness and HIV-related stigma explain depression among older HIV-positive adults,” AIDS Care, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 630–639, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. S. C. Kalichman, T. Heckman, A. Kochman, K. Sikkema, and J. Bergholte, “Depression and thoughts of suicide among middle-aged and older persons living with HIV-AIDS,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 903–907, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. A. Gonzalez, M. J. Mimiaga, J. Israel, C. A. Bedoya, and S. A. Safren, “Substance use predictors of poor medication adherence: the role of substance use coping among HIV-infected patients in opioid dependence treatment,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 168–173, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  117. M. C. Hampton, P. N. Halkitis, and J. S. Mattis, “Coping, drug use, and religiosity/spirituality in relation to HIV serostatus among gay and bisexual men,” AIDS Education and Prevention, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 417–429, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. R. Schuster, M. Bornovalova, and E. Hunt, “The influence of depression on the progression of HIV: direct and indirect effects,” Behavior Modification, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 123–145, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  119. K. J. Anstey, “Alcohol exposure and cognitive development: an example of why we need a contextualized, dynamic life course approach to cognitive ageing—a mini-review,” Gerontology, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 283–291, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. V. Kumar and L. J. Kinsella, “Healthy brain aging: effect of head injury, alcohol and environmental toxins,” Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 29–44, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. D. R. Brown, “Role of microglia in age-related changes to the nervous system,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 9, pp. 1061–1071, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. K. L. Medina, A. D. Schweinsburg, M. Cohen-Zion, B. J. Nagel, and S. F. Tapert, “Effects of alcohol and combined marijuana and alcohol use during adolescence on hippocampal volume and asymmetry,” Neurotoxicology and Teratology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 141–152, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. P. L. Fazeli, J. C. Marceux, D. E. Vance, L. Slater, and C. A. Long, “Predictors of cognition in adults with HIV: implications for nursing practice and research,” Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 36–50, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  124. T. Al-Khindi, K. K. Zakzanis, and W. G. van Gorp, “Does antiretroviral therapy improve HIV-associated cognitive impairment? A quantitative review of the literature,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 956–969, 2011.
  125. T. D. Parsons, A. J. Braaten, C. D. Hall, and K. R. Robertson, “Better quality of life with neuropsychological improvement on HAART,” Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, vol. 4, article 11, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. P. P. Koopmans, R. Ellis, B. M. Best, and S. Letendre, “Should antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection be tailored for intracerebral penetration?” Netherlands Journal of Medicine, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 206–211, 2009. View at Scopus
  127. Y. O. Obiabo and O. A. Ogunrin, “Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on cognitive functions in severely immune-compromised HIV-seropositive patients,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 313, no. 1-2, pp. 115–122, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  128. S. Letendre, J. Marquie-Beck, E. Capparelli et al., “Validation of the CNS penetration-effectiveness rank for quantifying antiretroviral penetration into the central nervous system,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 65–70, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. A. A. Howard, J. H. Arnsten, Y. Lo et al., “A prospective study of adherence and viral load in a large multi-center cohort of HIV-infected women,” AIDS, vol. 16, no. 16, pp. 2175–2182, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. J. L. Raper, “The medical managment of HIV disease,” in The Person with HIV/AIDS: Nursing Perspective, J. D. Durham and F. R. Lashley4th, Eds., pp. 221–291, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010.
  131. M. L. Ettenhofer, J. Foley, S. A. Castellon, and C. H. Hinkin, “Reciprocal prediction of medication adherence and neurocognition in HIV/AIDS,” Neurology, vol. 74, no. 15, pp. 1217–1222, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. M. L. Ettenhofer, C. H. Hinkin, S. A. Castellon et al., “Aging, neurocognition, and medication adherence in HIV infection,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 281–290, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  133. A. D. Thames, M. S. Kim, B. W. Becker, et al., “Medication and finance management among HIV-infected adults: the impact of age and cognition,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 200–209, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  134. N. Ciccarelli, M. Fabbiani, S. Di Giambenedetto et al., “Efavirenz associated with cognitive disorders in otherwise asymptomatic HIV-infected patients,” Neurology, vol. 76, no. 16, pp. 1403–1409, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. S. W. Perry, J. P. Norman, A. Litzburg, D. Zhang, S. Dewhurst, and H. A. Gelbard, “HIV-1 transactivator of transcription protein induces mitochondrial hyperpolarization and synaptic stress leading to apoptosis,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 174, no. 7, pp. 4333–4344, 2005. View at Scopus
  136. G. Logroscino, J. H. Kang, and F. Grodstein, “Prospective study of type 2 diabetes and cognitive decline in women aged 70–81 years,” British Medical Journal, vol. 328, no. 7439, pp. 548–551, 2004. View at Scopus
  137. P. C. Elwood, J. Pickering, A. Bayer, and J. E. J. Gallacher, “Vascular disease and cognitive function in older men in the Caerphilly cohort,” Age and Ageing, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 43–48, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. F. Harrington, B. K. Saxby, I. G. McKeith, K. Wesnes, and G. A. Ford, “Cognitive performance in hypertensive and normotensive older subjects,” Hypertension, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1079–1082, 2000. View at Scopus
  139. Y. Yakushiji, T. Noguchi, M. Hara, et al., “Distributional impact of brain microbleeds on global cognitive function in adults without neurological disorder,” Stroke, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 1800–1805, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  140. S. Viamonte, D. Vance, V. Wadley, D. Roenker, and K. Ball, “Driving-related cognitive performance in older adults with pharmacologically treated cardiovascular disease,” Clinical Gerontologist, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 109–123, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. R. Fogari, A. Mugellini, A. Zoppi et al., “Influence of losartan and atenolol on memory function in very elderly hypertensive patients,” Journal of Human Hypertension, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 781–785, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. N. C. Li, A. Lee, R. A. Whitmer et al., “Use of angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of dementia in a predominantly male population: prospective cohort analysis,” British Medical Journal, vol. 340, Article ID b5465, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. M. Braganca and A. Palha, “Depression and neurocognitive performance in Portuguese patients infected with HIV,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1879–1887, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  144. A. D. Thames, B. W. Becker, T. D. Marcotte et al., “Depression, cognition, and self-appraisal of functional abilities in HIV: an examination of subjective appraisal versus objective performance,” Clinical Neuropsychologist, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 224–243, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. D. E. Vance, J. E. Dodson, J. Watkins, B. H. Kennedy, and N. L. Keltner, “Neurological and psychiatric diseases and their unique cognitive profiles: implications for nursing practice and research,” Journal of Neuroscience Nursing. In press.
  146. K. H. Claypoole, A. J. Elliott, K. K. Uldall et al., “Cognitive functions and complaints in HIV-1 individuals treated for depression,” Applied Neuropsychology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 74–84, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. K. N. Devlin, A. Gongvatana, U. S. Clark et al., “Neurocognitive effects of HIV, hepatitis C, and substance use history,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 68–78, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  148. C. S. Meade, N. A. Conn, L. M. Skalski, and S. A. Safren, “Neurocognitive impairment and medication adherence in HIV patients with and without cocaine dependence,” Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 128–138, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. A. J. Applebaum, M. W. Otto, M. A. Richardson, and S. A. Safren, “Contributors to neuropsychological impairment in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected opiate-dependent patients,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 579–589, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. M. Cherner, P. Suarez, C. Casey et al., “Methamphetamine use parameters do not predict neuropsychological impairment in currently abstinent dependent adults,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 106, no. 2-3, pp. 154–163, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. D. A. Byrd, R. P. Fellows, S. Morgello, et al., “Neurocognitive impact of substance use in HIV infection,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 154–162, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  152. J. E. Iudicello, S. P. Woods, O. Vigil et al., “Longer term improvement in neurocognitive functioning and affective distress among methamphetamine users who achieve stable abstinence,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 704–718, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. I. Grant, R. Reed, and K. M. Adams, “Diagnosis of intermediate-duration and subacute organic mental disorders in abstinent alcoholics,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 319–323, 1987. View at Scopus
  154. H. G. Pope, A. J. Gruber, J. I. Hudson, M. A. Huestis, and D. Yurgelun-Todd, “Neuropsychological performance in long-term cannabis users,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 909–915, 2001. View at Scopus
  155. S. B. Rourke and I. Grant, “The interactive effects of age and length of abstinence on the recovery of neuropsychological functioning in chronic male alcoholics: a 2-year follow-up study,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 234–246, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. W. W. Beatty, R. Tivis, H. D. Stott, S. J. Nixon, and O. A. Parsons, “Neuropsychological deficits in sober alcoholics: influences of chronicity and recent alcohol consumption,” Alcoholism, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 149–154, 2000. View at Scopus
  157. S. B. Rourke and I. Grant, “Neuropsychological correlates of alcoholism,” in Neuropsychological Assessment of Neuropsychiatric and Neuromedical Disorders, I. Grant and K. M. Adams, Eds., pp. 398–454, Oxford Press, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2009.
  158. J. H. Atkins, S. L. Rubenstein, T. L. Sota, S. Rueda, H. Fenta, and J. Bacon, “Impact of social support on cognitive symptom burden in HIV/AIDS,” AIDS Care, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 793–802, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  159. J. T. Coyle, “Use it or lose it—do effortful mental activities protect against dementia?” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 25, pp. 2489–2490, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. P. P. Foster, K. P. Rosenblatt, and O. R. Kuljiš, “Exercise-induced cognitive plasticity, implications for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease,” Frontiers in Neurology, vol. 2, no. 28, pp. 1–15, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  161. Y. Feng and X. Wang, “Antioxidant therapies for Alzheimer’s disease,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2012, Article ID 472932, 17 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  162. E. Kesse-Guyot, V. A. Andreeva, C. Jeandel, M. Ferry, S. Hercberg, and P. Galan, “A healthy dietary pattern in midlife is associated with subsequent cognitive performance,” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 142, no. 5, pp. 909–915, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  163. S. Schaffer, H. Assesburg, S. Kuntz, W. E. Muller, and G. P. Eckert, “Effects of polyphenols on brain ageing and Alzheimer’s disease: focus on mitochondria,” Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 161–178, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  164. E. Rrapo, Y. Zhu, J. Tian et al., “Green tea-EGCG reduces GFAP associated neuronal loss in HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice,” American Journal of Translational Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 72–79, 2009. View at Scopus
  165. D. E. Vance, G. Eagerton, B. Harnish, P. McKie, and P. L. Fazeli, “Cognitive prescriptions: a nursing approach to increasing cognitive reserve,” Journal of Gerontological Nursing, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 22–29, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. S. Rollnick, W. R. Miller, and C. C. Butler, Motivational Interviewing in Health Care: Helping Patients Change Behavior, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2007.
  167. G. W. LaVigna and A. M. Donnellan, Alternatives to Punishment: Solving Behavior Problems with non-Aversive Strategies, Irvington, New York, NY, USA, 1986.
  168. D. E. Vance, K. Heaton, Y. Eaves, and P. L. Fazeli, “Sleep and cognition on everyday functioning in older adults: implications for nursing practice and research,” Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 261–273, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  169. H. Noice and T. Noice, “A theatrical intervention to improve cognition in intact residents of long term care facilities,” Clinical Gerontologist, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 59–76, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. D. E. Vance, M. A. Graham, P. L. Fazeli, K. Heaton, and L. Moneyham, “An overview of non-pathological geroneuropsychology: implications for nursing practice and research,” Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 43–53, 2012.
  171. D. Vance, J. Dawson, V. Wadley et al., “The accelerate study: the longitudinal effect of speed of processing training on cognitive performance of older adults,” Rehabilitation Psychology, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 89–96, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. T. D. Marcotte, R. K. Heaton, T. Wolfson et al., “The impact of HIV-related neuropsychological dysfunction on driving behavior,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 579–592, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. J. M. Wood, A. Chaparro, P. Lacherez, and L. Hickson, “Useful field of view predicts driving in the presence of distractors,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 373–381, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  174. D. E. Vance, P. L. Fazeli, L. Ross, V. G. Wadley, and K. K. Ball, “Speed of processing training with middle-aged and older adults with HIV: a pilot study,” Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 500–510, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  175. D. E. Vance, P. McNees, and K. Meneses, “Technology, cognitive remediation, and nursing: directions for successful cognitive aging,” Journal of Gerontological Nursing, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 50–56, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. M. S. George and G. Aston-Jones, “Noninvasive techniques for probing neurocircuitry and treating illness: vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS),” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 301–316, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. C. Miniussi and G. Vallar, “Brain stimulation and behavioural cognitive rehabilitation: a new tool for neurorehabilitation?” Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 553–559, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  178. V. Walsh and A. Pascual-Leone, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Neurochronometrics of Mind, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2003.
  179. L. M. Bullard, E. S. Browning, V. P. Clark et al., “Transcranial direct current stimulation's effect on novice versus experienced learning,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 213, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. C. Cerruti and G. Schlaug, “Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex enhances complex verbal associative thought,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 190–197, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. V. P. Clark, B. A. Coffman, A. R. Mayer, et al., “TDCS guided using fMRI significantly accelerates learning to identify concealed objects,” Neuroimage, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 117–128, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  182. A. Flöel, W. Suttorp, O. Kohl et al., “Non-invasive brain stimulation improves object-location learning in the elderly,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1682–1689, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. D. Fox, “Brain buzz,” Nature, vol. 472, pp. 156–159, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  184. R. Lindenberg, V. Renga, L. L. Zhu, D. Nair, and G. Schlaug, “Bihemispheric brain stimulation facilitates motor recovery in chronic stroke patients,” Neurology, vol. 75, no. 24, pp. 2176–2184, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. M. A. Nitsche, “Beyond the target area: remote effects of non-invasive brain stimulation in humans,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 489, part 13, pp. 3053–3054, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  186. M. Rosedale, D. Malaspina, D. Malamud, et al., “Developing patient-center treatment protocols in brain stimulation: a rationale for combining quantitative and qualitative approaches in persons with HIV,” Journal of the American Nurses Association, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 166–174, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  187. H. Knotkova, M. Rosedale, S. Strauss, et al., “Using transcranial direct current stimulation to treat depression in HIV-infected persons: the outcomes of a feasibility study,” Frontiers in Psychiatry, vol. 3, no. 59, pp. 1–8, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  188. D. E. Vance, T. Struzick, and K. Farr, “Spaced retrieval technique-a cognitive tool for social workers and their clients,” Journal of Gerontological Social Work, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 148–158, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. C. Haslam, K. I. Hodder, and P. J. Yates, “Errorless learning and spaced retrieval: how do these methods fare in healthy and clinical populations?” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 432–447, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. K. L. Morrow and J. Fridriksson, “Comparing fixed- and randomized-interval spaced retrieval in anomia treatment,” Journal of Communication Disorders, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 2–11, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. M. M. Neundorfer, C. J. Camp, M. M. Lee, M. J. Skrajner, M. L. Malone, and J. R. Carr, “Compensating for cognitive deficits in persons aged 50 and over with HIV/AIDS: a pilot study of a cognitive intervention,” Journal of HIV/AIDS and Social Services, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 79–97, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  192. D. E. Vance, N. M. Webb, J. C. Marceaux, S. M. Viamonte, A. W. Foote, and K. K. Ball, “Mental stimulation, neural plasticity, and aging: directions for nursing research and practice,” Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 241–249, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. J. Huntley, D. Bor, A. Hampshire, A. Wen, and R. Howard, “Working memory task performance and chunking in early Alzheimer's disease,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 198, no. 5, pp. 398–403, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  194. D. Tomasi, N. D. Volkow, G. J. Wang et al., “Methylphenidate enhances brain activation and deactivation responses to visual attention and working memory tasks in healthy controls,” NeuroImage, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 3101–3110, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  195. Y. Harel, N. Appleboim, M. Lavie, and A. Achiron, “Single dose of methylphenidate improves cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis patients with impaired attention process,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 276, no. 1-2, pp. 38–40, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  196. R. M. Julien, A Primer of Drug Action, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, NY, USA, 1998.
  197. C. H. Hinkin, S. A. Castellon, D. J. Hardy, R. Farinpour, T. Newton, and E. Singer, “Methylphenidate improves HIV-1-associated cognitive slowing,” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 248–254, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  198. J. R. Berger, M. Kumar, A. Kumar, J. B. Fernandez, and B. Levin, “Cerebrospinal fluid dopamine in HIV-1 infection,” AIDS, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 67–71, 1994. View at Scopus
  199. G. Charach, N. Kaysar, I. Grosskopf, A. Rabinovich, and M. Weintraub, “Methylphenidate has positive hypocholesterolemic and hypotrigylceridemic effects: new data,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 848–851, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  200. E. J. Wright, B. Grund, K. Robertson, et al., “Cardiovascular risk associated with lower baseline cognitive performance in HIV-positive persons,” Neurology, vol. 75, no. 10, pp. 864–873, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  201. D. C. Turner, L. Clark, J. Dowson, T. W. Robbins, and B. J. Sahakian, “Modafinil improves cognition and response inhibition in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 1031–1040, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  202. M. McElhiney, J. Rabkin, W. Van Gorp, and R. Rabkin, “Modafinil effects on cognitive function in HIV+ patients treated for fatigue: a placebo controlled study,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 474–480, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. J. A. Yesavage, L. Friedman, J. W. Ashford et al., “Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor in combination with cognitive training in older adults,” Journals of Gerontology B8, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. P288–P294, 2008. View at Scopus
  204. H. E. Gorby, A. M. Brownawell, and M. C. Falk, “Do specific dietary constituents and supplements affect mental energy? Review of the evidence,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 68, no. 12, pp. 697–718, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  205. M. J. Serby, S. J. Burns, and D. M. Roane, “Treatment of memory loss with herbal remedies,” Current Treatment Options in Neurology, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 520–528, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  206. B. E. Snitz, E. S. O'Meara, M. C. Carlson et al., “Ginkgo biloba for preventing cognitive decline in older adults a randomized trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 302, no. 24, pp. 2663–2670, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  207. M. J. Serby, C. Yhap, and E. Y. Landron, “A study of herbal remedies for memory complaints,” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 345–347, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  208. D. W. Luchtman and C. Song, “Cognitive enhancement by omega-3 fatty acids from child-hood to old age: findings from animal and clinical studies,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 64, pp. 550–565, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  209. E. Leblanc, B. Chan, and H. D. Nelson, Hormone Replacement Therapy and Cognition. U. S. Preventive Services Task Force Evidence Syntheses, Formerly Systematic Evidence Reviews, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, Md, USA, 2002.
  210. V. Sharma and P. Perros, “The management of hypogonadism in aging male patients,” Postgraduate Medicine, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 113–121, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  211. E. Hogervorst and S. Bandelow, “Sex steroids to maintain cognitive function in women after the menopause: a meta-analyses of treatment trials,” Maturitas, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 56–71, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  212. N. Mitsiades, D. Correa, C. P. Gross, A. Hurria, and S. F. Slovin, “Cognitive effects of hormonal therapy in older adults,” Seminars in Oncology, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 569–581, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  213. S. A. Shumaker, C. Legault, S. R. Rapp et al., “Estrogen plus progestin and the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal Women—the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 289, no. 20, pp. 2651–2662, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  214. N. Bassil and J. E. Morley, “Late-life onset hypogonadism: a review,” Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 197–222, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  215. D. E. Vance, L. A. Ross, and C. A. Downs, “Self-reported cognitive ability and global cognitive performance in adults with HIV,” Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 6–13, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  216. M. F. Folstein, S. E. Folstein, and P. R. McHugh, “‘Mini mental state’. a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 189–198, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  217. Z. Nasreddine, “Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA): administration and scoring instructions,” 2012, http://www.mocatest.org/.
  218. D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. FitzGerald, and K. R. Parkes, “The cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ) and its correlates,” British Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 1982. View at Scopus
  219. D. E. Vance, “A review of metacognition in aging with HIV,” Perceptual and Motor Skills, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 693–696, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  220. D. E. Vance, K. F. Farr, and T. Struzick, “Assessing the clinical value of cognitive appraisal in adults aging with HIV,” Journal of Gerontological Nursing, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 36–41, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  221. C. H. Hinkin, W. G. Van Gorp, P. Satz et al., “Actual versus self-reported cognitive dysfunction in HIV-1 infection: memory-metamemory dissociations,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 431–443, 1996. View at Scopus
  222. I. Mocchetti, A. Bachis, and V. Avdoshina, “Neurotoxicity of human immunodeficiency virus-1: viral proteins and axonal transport,” Neurotoxicity Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 79–89, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  223. J. Chmielewski and C. Hrycyna, “Tools for eradicating HIV in the brain: prodrug dimeric inhibitors of P-gp,” Therapeutic Delivery, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 689–692, 2012.
  224. H. Dou, C. B. Grotepas, J. M. McMillan et al., “Macrophage delivery of nanoformulated antiretroviral drug to the brain in a murine model of NeuroAIDS,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 183, no. 1, pp. 661–669, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  225. H. L. Wong, N. Chattopadhyay, X. Y. Wu, and R. Bendayan, “Nanotechnology applications for improved delivery of antiretroviral drugs to the brain,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 62, no. 4-5, pp. 503–517, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  226. L. R. Hanson and W. H. Frey, “Strategies for intranasal delivery of therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of neuroAIDS,” Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 81–86, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  227. D. E. Vance, “Olfactory and psychomotor symptoms in HIV and aging: potential precursors to cognitive loss,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 1–3, 2007. View at Scopus
  228. D. E. Vance and J. Burrace Jr., “Chemosenory declines in older adults with HIV: identifying interventions,” Journal of Gerontological Nursing, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 42–48, 2006. View at Scopus
  229. S. Craft, L. D. Baker, T. J. Montine et al., “Intranasal insulin therapy for Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a pilot clinical trial,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 29–38, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  230. S. L. Letendre, S. P. Woods, R. J. Ellis et al., “Lithium improves HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment,” AIDS, vol. 20, no. 14, pp. 1885–1888, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  231. G. Schifitto, J. Zhong, D. Gill et al., “Lithium therapy for human immunodeficiency virus type 1-associated neurocognitive impairment,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 176–186, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  232. T. H. Shepard, R. L. Brent, J. M. Friedman et al., “Update on new developments in the study of human teratogens,” Teratology, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 153–161, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  233. J. F. M. Wetzels, J. D. Van Bergeijk, A. J. Hoitsma, F. T. M. Huysmans, and R. A. P. Koene, “Triamterene increases lithium excretion in healthy subjects: evidence for lithium transport in the cortical collecting tubule,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 939–942, 1989. View at Scopus
  234. G. Schifitto, B. A. Navia, C. T. Yiannoutsos, et al., “Memantine and HIV-associated cognitive impairment: a neuropsychological and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study,” AIDS, vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 1877–1886, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  235. Y. Zhao, B. A. Navia, C. M. Marra et al., “Memantine for AIDS dementia complex: open-label report of actg 301,” HIV Clinical Trials, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 59–67, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  236. T. D. Marcotte, D. Lazzaretto, J. C. Scott et al., “Visual attention deficits are associated with driving accidents in cognitively-impaired HIV-infected individuals,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 13–28, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  237. K. Ball, J. D. Edwards, L. A. Ross, and G. McGwin Jr., “Cognitive training decreases motor vehicle collision involvement of older drivers,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 2107–2113, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  238. M. E. Berryhill and K. T. Jones, “tDCS selectively improves working memory in older adults with more education,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 521, no. 2, pp. 148–151, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar