Table 1: Light levels in NICU and with different types of lighting.

YearLight levelsSource of data

1960s10 foot candles (100 luxes)Glass et al., 1985 [19]

1980s90 foot candles (900 luxes)Glass et al., 1985 [19]

1981Mean = 53 foot candles (530 luxes)
Range = 34–140 foot candles (344–1400 luxes)
Gottfried et al., 1981 [34]

1990s19–148 foot candles (192–1488 luxes) Glotzbach et al., 1993 [35, 36],
Robinson et al., 1990

1998During day: mean = 29 foot candles (290 luxes)
During evening: mean = 34 foot candles (340 luxes)
During night: mean = 22 foot candles (220 luxes)
Gray et al., 1998 [37]

2001Individual lighting decreases daytime ambient light level from 20 foot candles (200 luxes) to 1.5 foot candles (15 luxes)
Fluorescent lights provide 19 foot candles (193 luxes)
Halogen spot light on “maximum” provides 19-20 candles (193–202 luxes)
Halogen spot light on default provides 1.2 foot candles (12 luxes)
Walsh-Sukys et al., 2001 [12]

2002>646 luxes (60 footcandles)American Academy of Pediatrics (2006) [38]