Table 2: The frequency (%), mean, and standard deviation of nurses' responses to the variables based on their importance in occurring medication errors from their viewpoints.

FactorsVariablesScaleMean ± SD
F (%)
Mean ± SD
total
Strongly agree
F (%)
Agree
F (%)
neutral
F (%)
Disagree
F (%)
Strongly disagree F (%)

Fear of the consequences
of reporting
Fear of the impact of reporting of errors on the personnel's annual evaluation13 (15.9%)19 (23.2%)8 (9.8%)30 (36.6%)12 (14.6%)
Fear of the impact of reporting of errors on their salary and benefits10 (12.2%)25 (30.5%)11 (13.4%)28 (34.1%)8 (9.8%)
Fear of being blamed by nursing heads6 (7.2%)16 (19.3%)7 (8.4%)34 (41%)20 (24.1%)
Fear of being blamed by doctors9 (11%)18 (22%)7 (8.5%)33 (40.2%)15 (18.3%)
Fear of being blamed by colleagues16 (9.8%)31 (38.3%)13 (16%)16 (19.8%)5 (6.2%)
Fear of producing side effects in patients11 (13.8%)14 (17.5%)2 (2.5%)29 (36.3%)24 (30%)
Fear of being labeled as incompetent nurses and inadequacy14 (17.1%)17 (20.7%)8 (8.9%)32 (39%)11 (13.4%)
Fear of colleagues' behavior13 (15.9%)27 (32.9%)14 (17.1%)19 (23.2%)9 (11%)
Fear of expressing a negative attitude towards the nurse(s) making errors by the patient and his/her family5 (6.2%)17 (21%)7 (8.6%)39 (48.1%)13 (16%)
Fear of judicial issues following reporting on medication errors6 (7.4%)11 (13.6%)7 (8.6%)36 (44.4%)21 (25.9%)
Fear of informing colleagues working in other units and other facilities about one's medication error4 (4.9%)19 (23.5%)8 (9.9%)34 (42%)16 (19.8%)

Managerial factorsLack of receiving positive feedback from the nursing heads following to report on medication errors4 (4.8%)17 (20.5%)10 (12%)28 (33.7%)24 (28.9%)
False beliefs in nursing heads and managers5 (6%)19 (22.9%)12 (14.5%)27 (32.5%)20 (24.1%)
The heads' focus only on finding the culprits and blaming them, regardless of other factors involved in the occurrence of errors5 (6%)12 (14.5%)12 (14.5%)30 (36.1%)24 (28.9%)
Disproportionate reactions of the heads to the error seriousness4 (4.8%)20 (24.1%)2 (2.4%)35 (42.2%)22 (26.5%)
Disproportionate reactions of the heads to the error importance3 (3.7%)22 (27.2%)9 (11.1)25 (30.9)22 (27.2%)

Factors related to the process
of reporting
Not paying attention to the reporting on some medication errors21 (25.6)14 (17.1%)11 (13.4%)28 (34.1%)8 (9.8%)
Lack of a clear definition of medication errors8 (9.6%)25 (30.1%)11 (13.3%)25 (30.1%)14 (16.9%)
To forget reporting on the medication errors13 (15.7%)20 (24.1%)11 (13.3%)28 (33.7%)11 (13.3%)