Table 2: Summary of included studies.

AuthorDesignIntervention and comparison Country and setting

Broscious and Saunders (2001) [24]Mixed method
Group interview and questionnaire
Peer coaching Junior and senior year students: Christopher Newport University in USA
Christiansen and Bell (2010) [19]Qualitative
Interpretive
Peer learningUK University preregistration nursing course
Christiansen and Jensen (2008) [33]Qualitative
Ethnographic
Role playing Third year student nurses in Norway
Cooke and Moyle (2002) [27]Qualitative—case studiesPBL versus CLLSecond year students at university in Australia
Daley et al. (2008) [20]Qualitative
Observation, focus groups, and journaling
Peer tutoringOhio State University, College of Nursing Students
Feingold et al. (2008)   
[32]
Mixed methods
Observation and interviews
Team learningFirst year student nurses: university in South Western USA
Goldsmith et al. (2006) [7]Mixed method
Portfolios, clinical assessment, and questionnaires
Peer learningFirst/third year students: Clinical Practice Unit (CPU) of a nursing school in Australia
Higgins (2004) [21]Quantitative
Quasiexperimental
Peer tutoring versus nonpeer tutoredMedical-surgical undergraduate nursing course: Texas, USA
Hughes et al. (2003) [35]Quantitative
Pretest/posttest crossover
Peer group experience versus nonpeer group experienceBaccalaureate school of nursing in USA
Horne et al. (2007) [25]Qualitative
Focus group interviews and use of fourth generation evaluation
Enquiry-based learningSecond year students at a higher education setting in the UK
Lin et al. (2010) [22]Quantitative
Experimental
Peer tutoring. PBL method in class versus CLLNursing ethics classes: university in Taiwan
Loke and Chow (2007) [23]Qualitative
Focus groups and individual interviews
Cooperative learningSecond/third year student nurses: university in Hong Kong
Morris and Turnbull (2004) [26]Qualitative evaluation
Focus group interviews, field notes
Peer tutoring3-year undergraduate nursing course in the UK
Ozturk et al. (2008) [28]Qualitative
Descriptive, analytical
PBL versus CLLFourth year undergraduate student nurses from two universities in Izmir, Turkey
Rideout et al. (2002) [29]Quantitative survey
Cross-sectional analytical design
PBL versus CLLBaccalaureate school of nursing and CLL programme in Canada
Roberts (2008) [18]Qualitative
Interpretive ethnographic
Informal peer learningUndergraduate students over a three-year course in a range of acute settings including intensive care, general surgical, rehabilitation, and medical wards in the UK
Siu et al. (2005) [30]Quantitative
Descriptive, correlation survey design
PBL versus CLLTwo universities in Ontario, Canada
Tiwari et al. (2006) [31]Mixed methods
Random controlled trial and survey
PBL versus CLLFirst year student nurses: university in Hong Kong

PBL: problem-based learning, CLL: classroom lecture learning.