Table 5: Mixed method studies.

Year/author/AimsSettingParticipant selectionAssessment measuresOutcomesGeneralizations and limitationsSuggested research

Broscious and Saunders (2001) [24]To implement a strategy to reduce student anxiety during their first clinical experience.Junior/senior year students in university in USA20 senior students and 25 junior students. Convenience sample of all students in year.Group interview and Likert scale survey: scale had statements presented as description of student experiences. On 5-point Likert scale (only means reported) students reported decreased sense of anxiety (mean 4.29), increasing confidence (mean 4.08), improved organization (mean 3.91), and perception of being a member of the team (mean 3.83). Senior students practiced leadership skill (mean 4.53), established priorities (mean 4.4), and developed plan of care (4.4). Reiterated amount learnt by senior. Impact of coach decreased in subsequent clinical session.Small sample and voluntary selection limits generalization.Further study by modifying and different sites and larger sample.

Feingold et al. (2008)   
[32]
To evaluate student perception of team learning and effect on class interaction and engagement.First year student nurses at a university in south-western USAFirst year students in course. Convenience sample: for interview—10%,
responses—21%.
Observation and interviews (Qualitative). STROBE classroom observation tool (Quantitative).Team learning promoted student engagement and was predominantly interactive. Over 305 minutes, most students were engaged/on task for 84% of time, with 70% of time being learner to learner engagement and further 8% of time being used for self-engagement. Main behaviour was learner to learner engagement. Recognized benefit of discussion of problems. The concept could be generalized. Small sample may not be representative of first year students (nonrandom, self-selected).Further study to help refine team learning process and to guide implementation of interactive learning strategies.

Goldsmith   
et al. (2006)   
[7]
To explore impact of peer learning on anxiety of first year student nurses when undertaking clinical skills assessments. First/3rd year students in Clinical Practice Unit (CPU) in Australia (Conducted over two years and two campuses)First/3rd year students in 2-year time frame. First year cohort of 187; 3rd year: 178. Portfolio submission as 3rd year, clinical skills assessment for first year students. Both groups completed questionnaires.Learning enhanced by experience.
Evaluation completed after 2 years; good representations of both campuses/years. Learning enhanced by experience. Positive answers to questions were given by a majority of both 1st/3rd years with 3rd years more likely to give positive responses.
Only two campuses of one university. Late development of assessment tool with not all students given opportunity to complete questionnaire. Voluntary completion of questionnaire which may not have been representative.Not reported.

Tiwari et al. (2006) [31]To compare effects of problem-based learning and lecturing approaches on development of students’ critical thinking.First year student nurses in one university in Hong KongAll 79 students in first year randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. PBL = 40, CLL = 39. Selection by ballot.Multivariate regression, 1 and 2 sample t-tests.No significant difference between groups at initial testing ( ). 2nd and 3rd data collection points showed significant difference in overall CCDTI scores between PBL and control groups ( , ). The 4th collection point showed higher score on the CCDTI for PBL group but nonsignificant difference ( ). PBL students found their course more enjoyable/inspiring than lecture group.Only one university and a small sample. Results may have been influenced by how lectures were conducted. Use of self-reporting tool.Monitoring of groups critical thinking in subsequent years.