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ISRN Oncology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 137289, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/137289
Review Article

Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation Products in Cancer Progression and Therapy

Department of Medicine and Experimental Oncology, University of Turin, Corso Raffaello 30, 10125 Torino, Italy

Received 24 July 2012; Accepted 28 August 2012

Academic Editors: P. Balaram, B. Fang, N. Fujimoto, and O. Hansen

Copyright © 2012 Giuseppina Barrera. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an altered redox status are common biochemical aspects in cancer cells. ROS can react with the polyunsaturated fatty acids of lipid membranes and induce lipid peroxidation. The end products of lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), have been considered to be a second messenger of oxidative stress. Beyond ROS involvement in carcinogenesis, increased ROS level can inhibit tumor cell growth. Indeed, in tumors in advanced stages, a further increase of oxidative stress, such as that occurs when using several anticancer drugs and radiation therapy, can overcome the antioxidant defenses of cancer cells and drive them to apoptosis. High concentrations of HNE can also induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, some cells escape the apoptosis induced by chemical or radiation therapy through the adaptation to intrinsic oxidative stress which confers drug resistance. This paper is focused on recent advances in the studies of the relation between oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation products, and cancer progression with particular attention to the pro-oxidant anticancer agents and the drug-resistant mechanisms, which could be modulated to obtain a better response to cancer therapy.