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Figure 3: Canonical Wnt-β-catenin pathway. Wnt signaling pathway is shown in the “OFF” (left hand side) and “ON” (right hand side) states. In the absence of a Wnt signal, the destruction complex phosphorylates and ubiquinates β-catenin, being therefore destroyed by the proteasome. In the presence of a Wnt signal, as the dishevelled protein (Dsh) recruits the Axin2 and inhibits GSK-3, β-catenin is not phosphorylated and therefore not destroyed. It can translocate to the nucleus and activate transcriptions genes (adapted from [72]).