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ISRN Oncology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 321246, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/321246
Review Article

Myeloid Neoplasias: What Molecular Analyses Are Telling Us

Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Centro de Transplantes de Medula Óssea, Instituto Nacional do Câncer (INCA), Praça da Cruz Vermelha 23, 6° Andar, 20230-130 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Received 12 August 2012; Accepted 30 August 2012

Academic Editors: G. Ferrandina and S. Patel

Copyright © 2012 Luciana M. Gutiyama et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In the last decades, cytogenetic and molecular characterizations of hematological disorders at diagnosis and followup have been most valuable for guiding therapeutic decisions and prognosis. Genetic and epigenetic alterations detected by different procedures have been associated to different cancer types and are considered important indicators for disease classification, differential diagnosis, prognosis, response, and individualization of therapy. The search for new biomarkers has been revolutionized by high-throughput technologies. At this point, it seems that we have overcome technological barriers, but we are still far from sorting the biological puzzle. Evidence based on translational research is required for validating novel genetic and epigenetic markers for routine clinical practice. We herein discuss the importance of genetic abnormalities and their molecular pathways in acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and myeloproliferative neoplasms. We also discuss how novel genomic abnormalities may interact and reassess concepts and classifications of myeloid neoplasias.