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ISRN Oncology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 768190, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/768190
Clinical Study

Carbonic Anhydrase I as a New Plasma Biomarker for Prostate Cancer

1Division of Chemotherapy and Clinical Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan
2Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
3New Frontiers Research Laboratories, Toray Industries, Inc., 10-1 Tebiro, Kanagawa, Kamakura 248-8555, Japan
4Bio Science Department, Research and Development Center, Mitsui Knowledge Industry Co., Ltd., 2-7-14 Higashinakano, Nakano-Ku, Tokyo 164-8555, Japan
5Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan

Received 17 September 2012; Accepted 2 October 2012

Academic Editors: A. E. Bilsland, B. Comin-Anduix, G. Ferrandina, and S. Holdenrieder

Copyright © 2012 Michiko Takakura et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels ranging from 4 to 10 ng/mL is considered a diagnostic gray zone for detecting prostate cancer because biopsies reveal no evidence of cancer in 75% of these subjects. Our goal was to discover a new highly specific biomarker for prostate cancer by analyzing plasma proteins using a proteomic technique. Enriched plasma proteins from 25 prostate cancer patients and 15 healthy controls were analyzed using a label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics platform called 2DICAL (2-dimensional image converted analysis of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry) and candidate biomarkers were searched. Among the 40,678 identified mass spectrum (MS) peaks, 117 peaks significantly differed between prostate cancer patients and healthy controls. Ten peaks matched carbonic anhydrase I (CAI) by tandem MS. Independent immunological assays revealed that plasma CAI levels in 54 prostate cancer patients were significantly higher than those in 60 healthy controls ( , Mann-Whitney test). In the PSA gray-zone group, the discrimination rate of prostate cancer patients increased by considering plasma CAI levels. CAI can potentially serve as a valuable plasma biomarker and the combination of PSA and CAI may have great advantages for diagnosing prostate cancer in patients with gray-zone PSA level.