Table 1: Studies that investigated among association between levels of adiponectin and cancer.

StudyType of studyStudy comments (OR, RR, HR)1Adjusted variablesResults

Barb et al. [18]Case-control102 women with breast cancer/100 healthy women
50-51 years old
OR
3.62 (1.61–8.19)
Age, family history, menarche age, BMI, menopause age, marriage statusAn inverse relationship between adiponectin levels and breast cancer pre- and post menopause

Jardé et al. [17]Case-control70 women with breast cancer/28 healthy women 25–65 years oldOR
0.2 (0.0–0.6)
Employment status, age at first pregnancy, smoking, alcohol consumption, OCP, hormone therapy, family history, breastfeeding, BMIInverse relationship between hormone concentration and breast cancer in pre- and postmenopause/abdominal obesity and physical inactivity increase the risk of cancer

Cust et al. [29]Case-control174 women with breast cancer/167 healthy womenOR
0.84 (0.71–0.99)
IGF Components, leptin, BMI, and socio- economic variablesInverse relationship between adiponectin concentration and breast cancer in postmenopausal women

Otake et al. [30]Prospective case-control1477 women with breast cancer/2196 healthy women
30–55 years old
RR
1.3 (0.8– 2.1)2
0.73 (0.55–0.98)3
Age, menopausal status, postmenopausal hormone useNo significant correlation between hormone levels and cancer risk

Tian et al. [1]Hospital-based
Case-control
244 women with breast cancer/244 healthy womenOR
0.55 (0.23–0.97)3
Age, BMI, waist to hip ratioNo significant correlation between hormone levels and risk of breast cancer in premenopause and a significant associated with breast cancer hormone in postmenopause

Kaklamani et al. [25]Hospital-based Case-control74 healthy women/74 women with breast cancer
30–82 years old
OR
0.23 (0.08–0.66)
Age, BMI, age at menarche, menopausal status, family history, insulin and leptin
0.77 Reduction in the cancer risk in women who were at the highest quartile of adiponectin levels

Körner et al. [26]Prospective248 women with endometrial cancer and 548 healthy womenRR
0.56 (0.36–0.86)
BMIStronger relationship between hormones and the risk of endometrial cancer in obese women

Tworoger et al. [31]Case-control87 women with endometrial cancer/132 healthy women
34–78 years old
OR
2.75 (1.16–6.54)4
Age, education, marriage status, smoking status, BMI, hormone replacement therapyHigh energy intake and low adiponectin associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer

Treeck et al. [32]Case control117 women with endometrial cancer and 238 healthy womenOR
10.5 (4.18–26.35)
Age, BMI, diabetes, high blood pressure11-fold increased risk of endometrial cancer in people who were at the lowest level of adiponectin compared with the highest level

Dal Maso et al. [33]Case control84 women with endometrial cancer/84 healthy womenOR
0.44 (0.24–0.81)
IGF, leptin, BMI, demographic-social variables1 standard deviation increased adiponectin levels decreased 50% risk of breast cancer in women younger than 65 years old. No significant association was found in individuals older than 65 years

Soliman et al. [34]Nested case-control698 men with BPH/ 705 healthy menOR
0.65 (0.47–0.87)
BMI, alcohol consumption, agePeople with the highest hormone concentration were in 35% lower risk for BPH

Körner et al. [26]Case control75 men with prostatic cancer/75 men with BPH/150 healthy menOR
0.9 (0.1–0.82)
Age, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking73% lower risk of prostate cancer in those in the highest quartile hormone levels compared with those who were in the lowest quartile

Petridou et al. [35]Prospective645 men with prostatic cancer and 644 healthy menHR
0.35 (0.14–0.86)
BMI, peptide C, type and gradeInverse relationship between sex hormones and fatal prostate cancer (comparing quintile 1 and 5)

He et al. [36]Case-control30 healthy people and 62 patients with esophageal cancerLow adiponectin levels in cancer patients ( )

Beebe-Dimmer et al. [37]Nested case-control381 people with colorectal cancer and 381 healthy peopleNo significant correlation between serum adiponectin levels and colorectal cancer

Yıldırım et al. [38]Nested case-control311 male cases with pancreatic cancer, 50–69 years old/510 control subjectsOR
0.65 (0.39–1.07)
Smoking status, blood pressure, C-peptideThe lower the cancer risk in people who were in the highest quintile of serum hormone

Goktas et al. [39]Prospective18225 men in total that 179 of whom were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, aged 40–75 yearsRR
0.48 (0.25–0.9)
BMISignificant correlation between hormone levels and cancer risk—no significant relationship was observed after adjustment for potential confounding

Kaklamani et al. [40]Case-control420 people with colorectal cancer and 555 healthy peopleOR
0.53 (0.35–0.81)
Age, sexSignificant relationship between adiponectin R1 receptor and risk of colorectal cancer

Stolzenberg-Solomon et al. [41]Case-control81 people with pancreatic cancer and 81 healthy peopleOR
2.81 (1.04–7.59)
Age, sex, BMI, smoking status, alcohol intake, history of diabetes, leptinPositive and significant correlation between hormone concentrations and risk of pancreatic cancer

1RR: relative risk; OR: odds ratio; HR: hazard ratio.
2OR in premenopausal women.
3RR and OR in postmenopausal women.
4OR results of low level of adiponectin in combination with ≥2500 kcal energy intake.