Table 2: Properties of cyclin-dependent kinases and binding partners in mammalian cell biology.

Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks)Most important binding partners for Cdks (secondary binding partners are indicated between parenthesis)List of major factors that interact with the heterodimer Cdk/cyclin partnerFunctions of the heterodimer Cdk/cyclin partner in mammalian cell biologyBibliographic references

Cdk1Cyclins A1; A2; B1; B2; (E; B3)Cell cycle machinery; Cdc28-dependent kinase subunit (Cks)G2-M (cell cycle)[13]

Cdk2Cyclins A1; A2; E1; E2 (D1; D2; B1; B3)Cell cycle machinery; protein kinase C-(PKC)-ιG1-S (cell cycle)[13, 14]

Cdk3Cyclins E1; E2; A1; A2; CCell cycle machinery; E2F/dimerization partner (DP)G0-G1-S (cell cycle)[13]

Cdk4Cyclins D1; D2; D3Cell cycle machinery; MyoDG1-S (cell cycle)[13]

Cdk5p35; p39 (cyclins D; E; G)Senescence; inhibition of cell cycle reentry in postmitotic neurons; neuronal migration; formation of dendrite extensions and synapses; neuronal survival; neuronal death[1322]

Cdk6Cyclins D1; D2; D3Cell cycle machineryG1-S (cell cycle)[13]

Cdk7Cyclin H and MATRNA pol II;
Protein kinase C- (PKC-) ι; estrogen receptor-α
Cdk-activating kinase (CAK)
[13, 14, 2629]

Cdk8Cyclin C (K?)RNA pol II;

Cdk9Cyclins T1; T2a; T2b; KRNA pol II; MyoD; p53; retinoblastomas gene (pRb); hSPT5, c-Myc; SkiP; Smad; signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3); TRAF2; Brd4; NF- B; Suppressor of Ty Homolog-5 (SUPT5H); Negative Elongation Factor-E (NELF-E); human Rad6 homolog UBE2A; E12/E47 (members of the basic helix-loop-helix family); Hexamethylene bisacetamide-inducible protein 1 (Hexim1); Hexim2; 7SK snRNA; p300/GATA4, HIV-1 and HIV-2 Tat protein; HTLV-1 tax protein; EBV EBNA2; hCMV pUL69; hCMV IE2; HSV-1 ICP22 and ICP27; adenovirus large E1A (L-E1A) protein; influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRNP); gp130*; HSP70*; HSP90*; Cdc37* (*these factors form a transient association with the monomeric Cdk9)Transcription; cotranscriptional mRNA processing; regulation of chromatin modification; cell differentiation (B and T lymphocytes, muscle cells); adipogenesis; protection from apoptosis[3, 10, 12, 13, 2428, 5667, 78, 79, 85, 88107]

G2M (cell cycle)

Cdk11Cyclins L1; L2; (D)Cell cycle machinery; RNA pol II; RanBPM; RNPS1; CK2; 14-3-3; 9G8; elF3; NOT2; HBO1 Transcription; pre-mRNA splicing;
M (cell cycle)
[13, 3641]

Cdk12Cyclins L1; L2; KRNA pol II;Transcription; regulation of RNA splicing; genome stability[4246]

Cdk13Cyclins L1; L2; KRNA pol II;Transcription; regulation of RNA splicing [4246]

Cdk14Cyclins D1; D2; D3; YCell cycle progression; cell proliferation; cell motility; chemoresistance in human primary oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells[4755]